How to format your references using the Annals of Tropical Paediatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Tropical Paediatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pulverer B. Transparency showcases strength of peer review. Nature. 2010 Nov 4;468(7320):29–31.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schink B, Friedrich M. Phosphite oxidation by sulphate reduction. Nature. 2000 Jul 6;406(6791):37.
A journal article with 3 authors
Waghmare PR, Das S, Mitra SK. Under-water superoleophobic glass: unexplored role of the surfactant-rich solvent. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1862.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rout CS, Joshi PD, Kashid RV, Joag DS, More MA, Simbeck AJ, et al. Superior field emission properties of layered WS2-RGO nanocomposites. Sci Rep. 2013 Nov 21;3:3282.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown R. Rational Choice and Judgment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Perenzoni M, Paul DJ, editors. Physics and Applications of Terahertz Radiation. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. VIII, 255 p. 172 illus., 45 illus. in color. (Springer Series in Optical Sciences; vol. 173).
A chapter in an edited book
Tveito A, Langtangen HP, Nielsen BF, Cai X. Nonlinear Algebraic Equations. In: Langtangen HP, Nielsen BF, Cai X, editors. Elements of Scientific Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 99–145. (Texts in Computational Science and Engineering).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Tropical Paediatrics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Gene Therapy Reverses Muscular Disease Symptoms In Mice [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Human Resources Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Apr. Report No.: AA-96-29(2).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hebel O. Parental involvement in the individual educational program for Israeli students with disabilities [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kennedy R, Davey M. Detroit’s Creditors Eye Its Art Collection. New York Times. 2013 Jul 20;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Tropical Paediatrics
AbbreviationAnn. Trop. Paediatr.
ISSN (print)0272-4936
ISSN (online)1465-3281
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles