How to format your references using the Annals of Tropical Paediatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Tropical Paediatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paul GS. Comment on “Narrow primary feather rachises in Confuciusornis and Archaeopteryx suggest poor flight ability.” Science. 2010 Oct 15;330(6002):320; author reply 320.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moore JN, Simmons SF. Geophysics. More power from below. Science. 2013 May 24;340(6135):933–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Melendez I, Grice K, Schwark L. Exceptional preservation of Palaeozoic steroids in a diagenetic continuum. Sci Rep. 2013 Sep 26;3:2768.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jarosz E, Mitchell DA, Wang DW, Teague WJ. Bottom-up determination of air-sea momentum exchange under a major tropical cyclone. Science. 2007 Mar 23;315(5819):1707–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stewart JM. Managing for World Class Safety. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2001.
An edited book
Montani S, Jain LC, editors. Successful Case-based Reasoning Applications - I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. X, 226 p. 107 illus., 3 illus. in color. (Studies in Computational Intelligence; vol. 305).
A chapter in an edited book
Larouche P, d’Entremont A, Thompson G, Mulpuri K. Fundamental Concepts in Evidence-Based Medicine. In: van de Kelft E, editor. Surgery of the Spine and Spinal Cord: A Neurosurgical Approach. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 65–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Tropical Paediatrics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Deadly Double Tornado Hit Nebraska [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Race to the Top: Characteristics of Grantees’ Amended Programs and Education’s Review Process. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Dec. Report No.: GAO-12-228R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fischer D. Psychology and people living with hiv/aids: A critical review of the literature [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Eight Arms To Embrace Your Pair. New York Times. 2010 Jun 24;E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Tropical Paediatrics
AbbreviationAnn. Trop. Paediatr.
ISSN (print)0272-4936
ISSN (online)1465-3281
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles