How to format your references using the Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine (ASEM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scully T. Demography: To the limit. Nature 2012; 492:S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rupert PB, Ferré-D’Amaré AR. Crystal structure of a hairpin ribozyme-inhibitor complex with implications for catalysis. Nature 2001; 410:780–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hinks DG, Claus H, Jorgensen JD. The complex nature of superconductivity in MgB2 as revealed by the reduced total isotope effect. Nature 2001; 411:457–60.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Blekhman R, Perry GH, Shahbaz S, Fiehn O, Clark AG, Gilad Y. Comparative metabolomics in primates reveals the effects of diet and gene regulatory variation on metabolic divergence. Sci Rep 2014; 4:5809.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Warren AEA, Lerner RM, Phelps E. Thriving and Spirituality Among Youth. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Okamura K, Matsuda A, editors. New Perspectives in Global Public Archaeology. New York, NY: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Dilettoso E, Rizzo SA, Salerno N. SALHE-EA: A New Evolutionary Algorithm for Multi-Objective Optimization of Electromagnetic Devices. In: Wiak S, Krawczyk A, Dolezel I, eds. Intelligent Computer Techniques in Applied Electromagnetics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008:37–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine.

Blog post
Carpineti A. China’s Moon Rover Is Officially Dead. IFLScience. 2016; Retrieved 30 October 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tax Systems Modernization: Unmanaged Risks Threaten Success. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995. No: T-AIMD-95-86.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen J. Adherence to medications among Vietnamese Americans 65 years of age and older [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr. Oakley Rejects Plea Bargain And Demands Day in Court. New York Times. 2017; :A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (3,4).
This sentence cites four references (5–8).

About the journal

Full journal titleAviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
AbbreviationAviat. Space Environ. Med.
ISSN (print)0095-6562
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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