How to format your references using the Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine (ASEM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bickford D. Animal behavior: male parenting of New Guinea froglets. Nature 2002; 418:601–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Freeman MP, Watkins NW. Auroral and space physics. The heavens in a pile of sand. Science 2002; 298:979–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jasny BR, Zahn LM, Marshall E. Complex systems and networks. Connections. Introduction. Science 2009; 325:405.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hu F, Lin H, Zhang Z, Liao F, Shao M, Lifshitz Y, et al. Smart liquid SERS substrates based on Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles with reversibly tunable enhancement factor for practical quantitative detection. Sci Rep 2014; 4:7204.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Massotte P, Corsi P. Smart Decisions in Complex Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Azzopardi A, editor. Youth: Responding to Lives: An International Reader. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Markner-Jäger B. Geoengineering. In: Markner-Jäger B, ed. Technical English for Geosciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008:13–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. Human Intestines Successfully Grown in Mice. IFLScience. 2014; Retrieved 30 October 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Cellular Service Competition. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993. No: T-RCED-93-3.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abedin G. Exploring the potential of art-based education for adolescents with learning disabilities: A case study of engagement in learning through the arts [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Walmart Sues Puerto Rico, Claiming an Unfair and Onerous Tax Burden. New York Times. 2016; :B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (3,4).
This sentence cites four references (4,5,7,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleAviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
AbbreviationAviat. Space Environ. Med.
ISSN (print)0095-6562
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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