How to format your references using the Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine (ASEM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Field JK. Perspective: The screening imperative. Nature 2014; 513:S7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Armitage AE, Drakesmith H. Genetics. The battle for iron. Science 2014; 346:1299–300.
A journal article with 3 authors
Puliga M, Caldarelli G, Battiston S. Credit Default Swaps networks and systemic risk. Sci Rep 2014; 4:6822.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yoon JW, Choi Y, Hahn C, Kim G, Song SH, Yang K-Y, et al. Time-asymmetric loop around an exceptional point over the full optical communications band. Nature 2018; 562:86–90.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Becker K, Rautenstrauch K. Ingenieurholzbau nach Eurocode 5: Konstruktion, Berechnung, Ausführung. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
Romano SD. Dielectric Spectroscopy in Biodiesel Production and Characterization. London: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Fujino Y, Kimura K, Tanaka H. Structural Damping. In: Kimura K, Tanaka H, eds. Wind Resistant Design of Bridges in Japan: Developments and Practices. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2012:71–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine.

Blog post
Hale T. Scientists Hope To Bring Giant Galapagos Tortoise Back From Extinction. IFLScience. 2017; Retrieved 30 October 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Opportunity For Savings By Consolidating Photographic Operations At The John F. Kennedy Space Center And The Air Force Eastern Test Range. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1968. No: B-162902.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gajewski TJ. Exploring leadership styles from a mediator’s perspective: A phenomenological study examining four specific organizational leadership styles and their relationship to four mediation styles as summarized by Leonard L. Riskin [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Executive In-Baskets Meant for a Park Picnic. New York Times. 2002; :145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (3,4).
This sentence cites four references (3,4,6,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleAviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
AbbreviationAviat. Space Environ. Med.
ISSN (print)0095-6562
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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