How to format your references using the Economics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Triendl, R., 2002. Interaction required. Nature 415, 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pontzen, A., Governato, F., 2014. Cold dark matter heats up. Nature 506, 171–178.
A journal article with 3 authors
Häkkinen, S., Rhines, P.B., Worthen, D.L., 2011. Atmospheric blocking and Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability. Science 334, 655–659.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hart, A.W., Baeza, N., Apelqvist, A., Edlund, H., 2000. Attenuation of FGF signalling in mouse beta-cells leads to diabetes. Nature 408, 864–868.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moeller, R.R., 2013. Executive’s Guide to IT Governance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Jäger, W., Rannacher, R., Warnatz, J. (Eds.), 2007. Reactive Flows, Diffusion and Transport: From Experiments via Mathematical Modeling to Numerical Simulation and Optimization Final Report of SFB (Collaborative Research Center) 359. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Zäpfel, G., Braune, R., Bögl, M., 2010. Metaheuristics Based on Solution Construction, in: Braune, R., Bögl, M. (Eds.), Metaheuristic Search Concepts: A Tutorial with Applications to Production and Logistics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 75–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economics Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Ocean Predators Can Help Reset Our Planet’s Thermostat [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. NATO-Warsaw Pact: U.S. and Soviet Perspectives of the Conventional Force Balance (No. NSIAD-89-23A). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hilmey, D.G., 2006. Synthesis and Study of Heteroatomic Spirocyclic Scaffolds (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J.B., 2017. Major Hurdle Awaits A Corporate Tax Cut. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Triendl, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Pontzen and Governato, 2014; Triendl, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pontzen and Governato, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Hart et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomics Letters
AbbreviationEcon. Lett.
ISSN (print)0165-1765
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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