How to format your references using the Economics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Guthrie, R.D., 2006. New carbon dates link climatic change with human colonization and Pleistocene extinctions. Nature 441, 207–209.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brongersma, M.L., Shalaev, V.M., 2010. Applied physics. The case for plasmonics. Science 328, 440–441.
A journal article with 3 authors
Davison, P.A., Hunter, C.N., Horton, P., 2002. Overexpression of beta-carotene hydroxylase enhances stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. Nature 418, 203–206.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Andreotti, B., Fourrière, A., Ould-Kaddour, F., Murray, B., Claudin, P., 2009. Giant aeolian dune size determined by the average depth of the atmospheric boundary layer. Nature 457, 1120–1123.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Karlson, B., Bria, A., Lind, J., Lönnqvist, P., Norlin, C., 2005. Wireless Foresight. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Berkling, K., Joseph, M., Meyer, B., Nordio, M. (Eds.), 2009. Software Engineering Approaches for Offshore and Outsourced Development: Second International Conference, SEAFOOD 2008, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2-3, 2008. Revised Papers, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, Z., Li, Y., 2012. Understanding and Control of Power Grids, in: Unger, H., Kyamaky, K., Kacprzyk, J. (Eds.), Autonomous Systems: Developments and Trends, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 49–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economics Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2016. Do No Harm To Life On Mars? Ethical Limits Of The ‘Prime Directive [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. U.S. Merchant Marine: Maritime Administration Should Assess Potential Mariner-Training Needs (No. GAO-14-212). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thiss, P.J., 2009. Effects of dedicated academic support services on the persistence rates of California Community College student-athletes (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M., 2017. ‘Transparency’ Of Tweets Risks Eroding Media’s Trust. New York Times A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Guthrie, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Brongersma and Shalaev, 2010; Guthrie, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brongersma and Shalaev, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Andreotti et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomics Letters
AbbreviationEcon. Lett.
ISSN (print)0165-1765
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

Other styles