How to format your references using the Economics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
May, M., 2013. Heart health. Nature 493, S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Singh, S.C., Macdonald, K.C., 2009. Mantle skewness and ridge segmentation. Nature 458, E11-2; author reply E12-3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Anderson, G., Aagaard, B., Hudnut, K., 2003. Fault interactions and large complex earthquakes in the Los Angeles area. Science 302, 1946–1949.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kosak, S.T., Skok, J.A., Medina, K.L., Riblet, R., Le Beau, M.M., Fisher, A.G., Singh, H., 2002. Subnuclear compartmentalization of immunoglobulin loci during lymphocyte development. Science 296, 158–162.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coulson, J., 2014. Sustainable Use of Wood in Construction. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Halgamuge, S.K., Wang, L. (Eds.), 2005. Classification and Clustering for Knowledge Discovery, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Jin, B., Chung, J.-E., 2016. Beaucre Merchandising Co. Ltd: A Successfully Internationalizing Korean Apparel Company, in: Jin, B., Cedrola, E. (Eds.), Fashion Brand Internationalization: Opportunities and Challenges. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, pp. 115–137.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economics Letters.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Fracking Set To Take Place In England For First Time In Five Years [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1970. Disposable Glassware for Laboratory Work (No. 092114). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stephens, A.H., 2012. William Harold Fletcher (b. 1923): His life and career in music education at Oklahoma Christian University, 1950–2012 (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
GEORGE GENE GUSTINES; Compiled by DAVE ITZKOFF, 2010. Motion Comic Recalls Rescuers In Holocaust. New York Times C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (May, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (May, 2013; Singh and Macdonald, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Singh and Macdonald, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Kosak et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomics Letters
AbbreviationEcon. Lett.
ISSN (print)0165-1765
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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