How to format your references using the Economics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Toomre, J., 2002. Solar physics. Order amidst turbulence. Science 296, 64–65.
A journal article with 2 authors
Behar, S.M., Baehrecke, E.H., 2015. Tuberculosis: Autophagy is not the answer. Nature 528, 482–483.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hatano, T., Stopa, M., Tarucha, S., 2005. Single-electron delocalization in hybrid vertical-lateral double quantum dots. Science 309, 268–271.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dodd, A.N., Salathia, N., Hall, A., Kévei, E., Tóth, R., Nagy, F., Hibberd, J.M., Millar, A.J., Webb, A.A.R., 2005. Plant circadian clocks increase photosynthesis, growth, survival, and competitive advantage. Science 309, 630–633.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anjum, B., Perros, H., 2015. Bandwidth Allocation for Video Under Quality of Service Constraints. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Alfirević, N., Burušić, J., Pavičić, J., Relja, R. (Eds.), 2016. School Effectiveness and Educational Management: Towards a South-Eastern Europe Research and Public Policy Agenda. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Nipkow, T., Klein, G., 2014. Logic and Proof Beyond Equality, in: Klein, G. (Ed.), Concrete Semantics: With Isabelle/HOL. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 37–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economics Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2015. One Of The Rarest Animals In The World Makes A Surprise Appearance [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Education Research: Education Should Improve Assessments of R&D Centers, Regional Labs, and Comprehensive Centers (No. GAO-02-190). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zinda, E.S., 2017. American Cerberus: Pit Bulls and Psyche in the United States (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barnard, A., 2016. Wary of Russian Guarantees, Residents Are Staying Put in Aleppo. New York Times A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Toomre, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Behar and Baehrecke, 2015; Toomre, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Behar and Baehrecke, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Dodd et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomics Letters
AbbreviationEcon. Lett.
ISSN (print)0165-1765
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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