How to format your references using the Economics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dernburg, A.F., 2012. Molecular biology. RNA plays meiotic matchmaker. Science 336, 681–682.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ramocki, M.B., Zoghbi, H.Y., 2008. Failure of neuronal homeostasis results in common neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Nature 455, 912–918.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rougier, G.W., Apesteguía, S., Gaetano, L.C., 2011. Highly specialized mammalian skulls from the Late Cretaceous of South America. Nature 479, 98–102.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schäfer, T., Maco, B., Petfalski, E., Tollervey, D., Böttcher, B., Aebi, U., Hurt, E., 2006. Hrr25-dependent phosphorylation state regulates organization of the pre-40S subunit. Nature 441, 651–655.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Arduin, P.-E., Grundstein, M., Rosenthal-Sabroux, C., 2015. Information and Knowledge System. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Liu, B. (Ed.), 2011. The Plant Cytoskeleton, Advances in Plant Biology. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Chun-hong, C., Chuan, T., Da-zhe, Z., Bin, Z., 2012. The Parametric Design Based on Bee Dual Population Evolution on Chaos, in: Wang, X., Wang, F., Zhong, S. (Eds.), Electrical, Information Engineering and Mechatronics 2011: Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Electrical, Information Engineering and Mechatronics (EIEM 2011), Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer, London, pp. 35–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economics Letters.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2017. Gene Cernan, The Last Person To Set Foot On The Moon, Dies At 82 [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2012. Information Technology: Agencies Need to Strengthen Oversight of Billions of Dollars in Operations and Maintenance Investments (No. GAO-13-87). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tsai, C.-N., 2012. A simulation study of hierarchical wireless sensor networks (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O., 2016. Friday File: A Household of April Fool’s Jokes. New York Times C27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dernburg, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Dernburg, 2012; Ramocki and Zoghbi, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ramocki and Zoghbi, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Schäfer et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomics Letters
AbbreviationEcon. Lett.
ISSN (print)0165-1765
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

Other styles