How to format your references using the Economics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yutzey, K.E., 2015. Regenerative biology: Neuregulin 1 makes heart muscle. Nature 520, 445–446.
A journal article with 2 authors
Logan, G.D., Crump, M.J.C., 2010. Cognitive illusions of authorship reveal hierarchical error detection in skilled typists. Science 330, 683–686.
A journal article with 3 authors
Su, Q.-P., Yang, C.-P., Zheng, S.-B., 2014. Fast and simple scheme for generating NOON states of photons in circuit QED. Sci. Rep. 4, 3898.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Arslan, I., Yates, T.J.V., Browning, N.D., Midgley, P.A., 2005. Embedded nanostructures revealed in three dimensions. Science 309, 2195–2198.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stone, R., Gutiérrez-Albilla, J.D., 2013. A Companion to Luis Buñuel. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Teyssière, G., Kirman, A.P. (Eds.), 2007. Long Memory in Economics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kobayashi, Y., Kadowaki, S., Naganuma, M., 2015. A Population-Genetics Based Model for Explaining Apparent Cultural Continuity from the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic in Eurasia, in: Mesoudi, A., Aoki, K. (Eds.), Learning Strategies and Cultural Evolution during the Palaeolithic. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp. 35–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economics Letters.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Evidence For Ancient Wet Martian Environment Hints At Habitats For Life [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003. Information Technology: A Framework for Assessing and Improving Enterprise Architecture Management (Version 1.1) (Superseded by GAO-10-846G) (No. GAO-03-584G). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Virchez Azuara, A., 2015. A human resource perspective on the development of workforce agility (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2013. An Event for the Elite and the Average Alike. New York Times F2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yutzey, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Logan and Crump, 2010; Yutzey, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Logan and Crump, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Arslan et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomics Letters
AbbreviationEcon. Lett.
ISSN (print)0165-1765
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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