How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. A. Lee, “Physics. An end to the drought of quantum spin liquids,” Science, vol. 321, no. 5894, pp. 1306–1307, Sep. 2008.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. Li and R. Durbin, “Inference of human population history from individual whole-genome sequences,” Nature, vol. 475, no. 7357, pp. 493–496, Jul. 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. J. Buehler, F. F. Abraham, and H. Gao, “Hyperelasticity governs dynamic fracture at a critical length scale,” Nature, vol. 426, no. 6963, pp. 141–146, Nov. 2003.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Z. Q. Liu, G. Liu, R. T. Qu, Z. F. Zhang, S. J. Wu, and T. Zhang, “Microstructural percolation assisted breakthrough of trade-off between strength and ductility in CuZr-based metallic glass composites,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 4167, Feb. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Maude, Global Private Banking and Wealth Management. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
M. Krajewski, Ed., Services of General Interest Beyond the Single Market: External and International Law Dimensions. in Legal Issues of Services of General Interest. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
V. K. LaBoskey, “‘Name It and Claim It’: The Methodology of Self-Study as Social Justice Teacher Education,” in Research Methods for the Self-study of Practice, L. Fitzgerald, M. Heston, and D. Tidwell, Eds., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2009, pp. 73–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies.

Blog post
J. Davis, “Deep Sea Expedition Records Animal Behavior Only Known From 252-Million-Year-Old Fossils,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Tax Systems Modernization: Program Status and Comments on IRS’ Portion of President’s Request For Fiscal Year 1993 Supplemental Funds,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-IMTEC-93-3, Mar. 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. L. Little, “The effects of a financial literacy intervention on teachers’ financial literacy, awareness, and advocacy,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
W. J. Perry and G. P. Shultz, “How to Build on the Start Treaty,” New York Times, p. WK11, Apr. 11, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies
ISSN (print)1939-1382
ScopeComputer Science Applications
General Engineering

Other styles