How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. S. Lerner, “Good and bad science in US schools,” Nature, vol. 407, no. 6802, pp. 287–290, Sep. 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. A. Shields and J. F. Kasting, “Palaeoclimatology: evidence for hot early oceans?,” Nature, vol. 447, no. 7140, pp. E1; discussion E1-2, May 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Ma, K. Aihara, and L. Chen, “Detecting causality from nonlinear dynamics with short-term time series,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 7464, Dec. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Chen, Z. Li, X. Zhang, J. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Submicron bidirectional all-optical plasmonic switches,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 1451, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. D. Lewin, Better Software Project Management: A Primer for Success. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007.
An edited book
W. Schröder, Ed., Summary of Flow Modulation and Fluid-Structure Interaction Findings: Results of the Collaborative Research Center SFB 401 at the RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany, 1997-2008, vol. 109. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Sanfelice Bazanella, L. Campestrini, and D. Eckhard, “Convergence to the Globally Optimal Controller,” in Data-Driven Controller Design: The H2 Approach, L. Campestrini and D. Eckhard, Eds. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2012, pp. 89–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, “Asteroids Might Camouflage Themselves With Material From Elsewhere,” IFLScience, 23-Jan-2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “New Denver Airport: Impact of the Delayed Baggage System,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-95-35BR, Oct. 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Bai, “Identification and Characterization of Senescence-Associated Proteins in Petunia Corollas,” Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Herrman, “As Presidential Campaign Demonstrated, All Media Is Alternative Online,” New York Times, p. P8, 11-Nov-2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies
ISSN (print)1939-1382
ScopeComputer Science Applications
General Engineering

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