How to format your references using the Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Smaglik P. Tale of two surveys. Nature 2005;434:539.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Carrete M, Tella JL. High individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of rural and urban burrowing owls. Sci Rep 2013;3:3524.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Gregory JM, Huybrechts P, Raper SCB. Climatology: threatened loss of the Greenland ice-sheet. Nature 2004;428:616.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Koehl A, Hu H, Maeda S, Zhang Y, Qu Q, Paggi JM, et al. Structure of the µ-opioid receptor-Gi protein complex. Nature 2018;558:547–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Lamperti JW. Probability: A Survey of the Mathematical Theory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1996.
An edited book
[1]
Mumtaz S, Rodriguez J, Katz M, Wang C, Nascimento A, editors. Wireless Internet: 8th International Conference, WICON 2014, Lisbon, Portugal, November 13-14, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. vol. 146. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Lepisto E. Azerbaijan. In: Hörner W, Döbert H, Reuter LR, Kopp B von, editors. The Education Systems of Europe, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 61–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Bizarre, Ghost-Like Animal Sets New Record For Deepest Living Fish. IFLScience 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. School Dropouts: Survey of Local Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Mycroft D. Minorities in leadership and financial performance of their Fortune 500 companies. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Wagner J. Mets Start Spring as Big Spenders, and Carrying an Outfield Surplus. New York Times 2017:D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
AbbreviationCase Stud. Eng. Fail. Anal.
ISSN (print)2213-2902
ScopeSafety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

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