How to format your references using the Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Yamamoto Y. Semiconductor physics. Half-matter, half-light amplifier. Nature 2000;405:629–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Gibbs RA, Nelson DL. Human genetics. Primate shadow play. Science 2003;299:1331–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Rieseberg LH, Wood TE, Baack EJ. The nature of plant species. Nature 2006;440:524–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Bogdan A, Molina MJ, Tenhu H, Bertel E, Bogdan N, Loerting T. Visualization of freezing process in situ upon cooling and warming of aqueous solutions. Sci Rep 2014;4:7414.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Knowles R. 200 Contractual Problems and their Solutions. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
[1]
Abramowitz JS, Houts AC, editors. Concepts and Controversies in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Wen L, Luo H-Z, Liu G-Y, Zheng H-T. Nanostructured Lithium Titanates (Li4Ti5O12) for Lithium-Ion Batteries. In: Ozoemena KI, Chen S, editors. Nanomaterials in Advanced Batteries and Supercapacitors, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 127–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Testing Ancient Human Hearing Via Fossilized Ear Bones. IFLScience 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Business Systems Modernization: Results of Review of IRS’ Customer Account Data Engine Project. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Skiold-Hanlin S. Functional and Ecological Aspects of the Mucus Trails of the Freshwater Gastropod Elimia potosiensis. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Pilon M. Mathematicians Are Hoping Calculations Add Up to the Perfect Bracket. New York Times 2014:SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
AbbreviationCase Stud. Eng. Fail. Anal.
ISSN (print)2213-2902
ScopeSafety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

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