How to format your references using the Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Nordhaus W. Economics. Critical assumptions in the Stern Review on climate change. Science 2007;317:201–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Catalan G, Scott JF. Magnetoelectrics: is CdCr2S4 a multiferroic relaxor? Nature 2007;448:E4-5; discussion E5-6.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Kageyama A, Miyagoshi T, Sato T. Formation of current coils in geodynamo simulations. Nature 2008;454:1106–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Elliott T, Thomas A, Jeffcoate A, Niu Y. Lithium isotope evidence for subduction-enriched mantle in the source of mid-ocean-ridge basalts. Nature 2006;443:565–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Rittereiser CM, Kochard LE. Top Hedge Fund Investors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
[1]
Neyer G, Andersson G, Kulu H, Bernardi L, Bühler C, editors. The Demography of Europe. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Sanders AR. Genetics of Schizophrenia. In: Janicak PG, Marder SR, Tandon R, Goldman M, editors. Schizophrenia: Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment, New York, NY: Springer; 2014, p. 59–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis.

Blog post
[1]
Luntz S. American English Is Becoming Less Positive. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/brain/american-english-is-becoming-less-positive/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Census Bureau Needs to Implement Key Management Practices. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Simon-Owens NL. Southern Virginia Higher Education Center: An exploration of factors affecting organizational leadership. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Eldred SM, Kovaleski SF, Sisario B. Unsolved Mysteries, in Purple. New York Times 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
AbbreviationCase Stud. Eng. Fail. Anal.
ISSN (print)2213-2902
ScopeSafety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

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