How to format your references using the Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Schmollinger J. Gaining a lot from translation. Nature 2002;418:5.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Cho US, Xu W. Crystal structure of a protein phosphatase 2A heterotrimeric holoenzyme. Nature 2007;445:53–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Yin Y, Manoury B, Fåhraeus R. Self-inhibition of synthesis and antigen presentation by Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA1. Science 2003;301:1371–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Crowhurst JC, Brown JM, Goncharov AF, Jacobsen SD. Elasticity of (Mg,Fe)O through the spin transition of iron in the lower mantle. Science 2008;319:451–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Ruske W. Verlag Chemie 1921-1971. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 1971.
An edited book
[1]
Kegl B. Green Diesel Engines: Biodiesel Usage in Diesel Engines. vol. 12. London: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Schättler H, Ledzewicz U. Optimal Control of Mathematical Models for Antiangiogenic Treatments. In: Ledzewicz U, editor. Optimal Control for Mathematical Models of Cancer Therapies: An Application of Geometric Methods, New York, NY: Springer; 2015, p. 171–235.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis.

Blog post
[1]
Carpineti A. Some Of Your Suntan Comes From Beyond The Milky Way. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/space/some-of-your-suntan-comes-from-beyond-the-milky-way/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. FCC: Development of Technical and Spectrum Requirements for Meeting Public Safety Agency Communication Requirements Through 2010, Establishment of Rules and Requirements for Priority Access Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Fino M. Fruit and vegetable intake and exercise practices of college students of color. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Dominus S. Refusing My Religion. New York Times 2015:BR10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis
AbbreviationCase Stud. Eng. Fail. Anal.
ISSN (print)2213-2902
ScopeSafety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

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