How to format your references using the Ecology and Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecology and Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eagleman, D. M. 2004. Neuroscience. The where and when of intention. Science (New York, N.Y.) 303(5661):1144–1146.
A journal article with 2 authors
Selby, D., and R. A. Creaser. 2005. Direct radiometric dating of hydrocarbon deposits using rhenium-osmium isotopes. Science (New York, N.Y.) 308(5726):1293–1295.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jasny, B. R., L. M. Zahn, and E. Marshall. 2009. Complex systems and networks. Connections. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.) 325(5939):405.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Miller, M. M., T. Melbourne, D. J. Johnson, and W. Q. Sumner. 2002. Periodic slow earthquakes from the Cascadia subduction zone. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295(5564):2423.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Segura, J., and C. F. Hawkins. 2005. CMOS Electronics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kimko, H. H. C., and C. C. Peck, editors. 2011. Clinical Trial Simulations: Applications and Trends. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Claassen, G. D. H., and E. M. T. Hendrix. 2014. On Modelling Approaches for Planning and Scheduling in Food Processing Industry. Pages 47–59 in B. Murgante, S. Misra, A. M. A. C. Rocha, C. Torre, J. G. Rocha, M. I. Falcão, D. Taniar, B. O. Apduhan, and O. Gervasi, editors. Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2014: 14th International Conference, Guimarães, Portugal, June 30 – July 3, 2014, Proceedings, Part II. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecology and Society.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2016, August 31. This iPad Game Could Help Diagnose Kids With Autisim. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. Impact of Illegal Aliens on Public Assistance Programs: Too Little Is Known. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bobadilla, J. 2014. Helping at-risk youth through a preventative program. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Loomis, G. 2016, April 26. Interpreting Verdi and Alfredo Casella. New York Times:C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eagleman 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Eagleman 2004, Selby and Creaser 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Selby and Creaser 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Miller et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcology and Society
AbbreviationConserv. Ecol.
ISSN (print)1195-5449
ScopeNature and Landscape Conservation

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