How to format your references using the Ecological Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2004. Centre stage in Missouri. Nature 431, 720–721.
A journal article with 2 authors
Côté, I.M., Cheney, K.L., 2005. Animal mimicry: choosing when to be a cleaner-fish mimic. Nature 433, 211–212.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song, K., Yeom, E., Lee, S.J., 2014. Real-time imaging of pulvinus bending in Mimosa pudica. Sci. Rep. 4, 6466.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kaindl, R.A., Carnahan, M.A., Hägele, D., Lövenich, R., Chemla, D.S., 2003. Ultrafast terahertz probes of transient conducting and insulating phases in an electron-hole gas. Nature 423, 734–738.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Clark, M., 2006. Understanding Diabetes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Bernstein, D.J., Chatterjee, S. (Eds.), 2011. Progress in Cryptology – INDOCRYPT 2011: 12th International Conference on Cryptology in India, Chennai, India, December 11-14, 2011. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Manton, K.G., Akushevich, I., Kravchenko, J., 2009. Stochastic Methods of Analysis, in: Akushevich, I., Kravchenko, J. (Eds.), Cancer Mortality and Morbidity Patterns in the U.S. Population: An Interdisciplinary Approach, Statistics for Biology and Health. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 191–216.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Informatics.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Study Finds Majority Of Western Canada’s Glaciers Will Be Gone By 2100 [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Fund Accountability: Procedures Used for Selected Benefit/Mandatory Spending Programs Are Adequate (No. AFMD-88-30). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson, P., 2015. A Case Study of the Efficacy of Middle College on Educational Advancement (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Clarey, C., 2016. Halep Puts Up a Fight, but Williams Rolls On. New York Times B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Côté and Cheney, 2005; Smaglik, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Côté and Cheney, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Kaindl et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Informatics
AbbreviationEcol. Inform.
ISSN (print)1574-9541
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Science Applications
Ecological Modelling
Applied Mathematics
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles