How to format your references using the Ecological Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Breukink, E., 2009. Cell biology. Lethal traffic jam. Science 325, 684–685.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stone, R., Jasny, B., 2013. Communication in science pressures and predators. Scientific discourse: buckling at the seams. Introduction. Science 342, 56–57.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ford, E.B., Seager, S., Turner, E.L., 2001. Characterization of extrasolar terrestrial planets from diurnal photometric variability. Nature 412, 885–887.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hay, S.I., Cox, J., Rogers, D.J., Randolph, S.E., Stern, D.I., Shanks, G.D., Myers, M.F., Snow, R.W., 2002. Climate change and the resurgence of malaria in the East African highlands. Nature 415, 905–909.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ugeux, G., 2014. International Finance Regulation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Fischer, J., Sanders, P. (Eds.), 2013. Combinatorial Pattern Matching: 24th Annual Symposium, CPM 2013, Bad Herrenalb, Germany, June 17-19, 2013. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Liitos, H.-M., Kallio, E., Tynjälä, P., 2012. Transformations Toward Mature Thinking: Challenges for Education and Learning, in: Tynjälä, P., Stenström, M.-L., Saarnivaara, M. (Eds.), Transitions and Transformations in Learning and Education. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 51–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Informatics.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2017. Cats Might Not Be Total Jerks After All, According To Study [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2012. Information Technology: Department of Labor Could Further Facilitate Modernization of States’ Unemployment Insurance Systems (No. GAO-12-957). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yamada, T., 2008. Comparison of cognitively diagnostic adaptive testing algorithms (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2013. When Just Being Alive Was Beyond Belief. New York Times E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Breukink, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Breukink, 2009; Stone and Jasny, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stone and Jasny, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Hay et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Informatics
AbbreviationEcol. Inform.
ISSN (print)1574-9541
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Science Applications
Ecological Modelling
Applied Mathematics
Modelling and Simulation

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