How to format your references using the Ecological Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Norman, M.R., 2011. The challenge of unconventional superconductivity. Science 332, 196–200.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roberson, E.D., Mucke, L., 2006. 100 years and counting: prospects for defeating Alzheimer’s disease. Science 314, 781–784.
A journal article with 3 authors
Biswas, A.K., Atulasimha, J., Bandyopadhyay, S., 2014. An error-resilient non-volatile magneto-elastic universal logic gate with ultralow energy-delay product. Sci. Rep. 4, 7553.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Karlsson, A., Parales, J.V., Parales, R.E., Gibson, D.T., Eklund, H., Ramaswamy, S., 2003. Crystal structure of naphthalene dioxygenase: side-on binding of dioxygen to iron. Science 299, 1039–1042.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abulencia, J.P., Theodore, L., 2015. Open-Ended Problems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Paganini, G., Neto, J.R.M. (Eds.), 2009. Renaissance Scepticisms, International Archives of the History of Ideas. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Otjacques, B., Noirhomme, M., Feltz, F., 2007. Innovative Visualization Tools to Monitor Scientific Cooperative Activities, in: Luo, Y. (Ed.), Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering: 4th International Conference, CDVE 2007, Shanghai, China, September 16-20, 2007. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 33–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Informatics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Can Wearing Orange-Tinted Glasses Before Bed Help You Sleep? Only One Way To Find Out… [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1970. Review of Expenditures of Federal Funds Granted Under the Community Service and Continuing Education Program (No. B-164031(1)). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Conill, A.L., 2015. Dosimetric consequences of the parotid glands using CT-to-CBCT deformable registration during IMRT for late stage head and neck cancers (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pear, R., 2017. Health Insurers Predict Chaos From Latest G.O.P. Repeal Bill. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Norman, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Norman, 2011; Roberson and Mucke, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roberson and Mucke, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Karlsson et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Informatics
AbbreviationEcol. Inform.
ISSN (print)1574-9541
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Science Applications
Ecological Modelling
Applied Mathematics
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles