How to format your references using the Ecological Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Masocha, W., 2014. Paclitaxel-induced hyposensitivity to nociceptive chemical stimulation in mice can be prevented by treatment with minocycline. Sci. Rep. 4, 6719.
A journal article with 2 authors
Orsini, A., Falconi, C., 2014. Real-time monitoring of the solution growth of ZnO nanorods arrays by quartz microbalances and in-situ temperature sensors. Sci. Rep. 4, 6285.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mézard, M., Parisi, G., Zecchina, R., 2002. Analytic and algorithmic solution of random satisfiability problems. Science 297, 812–815.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jia, Y., Yu, G., He, N., Zhan, X., Fang, H., Sheng, W., Zuo, Y., Zhang, D., Wang, Q., 2014. Spatial and decadal variations in inorganic nitrogen wet deposition in China induced by human activity. Sci. Rep. 4, 3763.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simon, L., Ospina, J., 2015. Closed-Form Solutions for Drug Transport through Controlled-Release Devices in Two and Three Dimensions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Meersman, R., Tari, Z., Herrero, P. (Eds.), 2007. On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems 2007: OTM 2007 Workshops: OTM Confederated International Workshops and Posters, AWeSOMe, CAMS, OTM Academy Doctoral Consortium, MONET, OnToContent, ORM, PerSys, PPN, RDDS, SSWS, and SWWS 2007, Vilamoura, Portugal, November 25-30, 2007, Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
D’Mello, S., Graesser, A., 2006. Affect Detection from Human-Computer Dialogue with an Intelligent Tutoring System, in: Gratch, J., Young, M., Aylett, R., Ballin, D., Olivier, P. (Eds.), Intelligent Virtual Agents: 6th International Conference, IVA 2006, Marina Del Rey, CA, USA, August 21-23, 2006. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 54–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Informatics.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. NASA’s LADEE Has Crashed Into the Moon [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Telecommunications: Issues Related to Local Telephone Service (No. RCED-00-237). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barham, O.M., 2017. Microfabricated Bulk Piezoelectric Transformers (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M., Koblin, J., 2017. For Fox News, Life After Bill O’Reilly Will Feature Tucker Carlson. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Masocha, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Masocha, 2014; Orsini and Falconi, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Orsini and Falconi, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Jia et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Informatics
AbbreviationEcol. Inform.
ISSN (print)1574-9541
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Science Applications
Ecological Modelling
Applied Mathematics
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles