How to format your references using the Ecological Entomology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Entomology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gadagkar, R. (2011) Evolution. Altruistic wasps? Science (New York, N.Y.), 333, 833–834.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sato, M. & Sato, K. (2011) Degradation of paternal mitochondria by fertilization-triggered autophagy in C. elegans embryos. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334, 1141–1144.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pluth, M.D., Bergman, R.G. & Raymond, K.N. (2007) Acid catalysis in basic solution: a supramolecular host promotes orthoformate hydrolysis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316, 85–88.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Saiardi, A., Bhandari, R., Resnick, A.C., Snowman, A.M. & Snyder, S.H. (2004) Phosphorylation of proteins by inositol pyrophosphates. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306, 2101–2105.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sinaiski, E.G. (2011) Hydromechanics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Ehnert, I., Harry, W. & Zink, K.J. (Eds.). (2014) Sustainability and Human Resource Management: Developing Sustainable Business Organizations. CSR, Sustainability, Ethics & Governance. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Getz, J. & Goresky, M. (2012) Review of Arithmetic Quotients. In Hilbert Modular Forms with Coefficients in Intersection Homology and Quadratic Base Change (ed. by Goresky, M.). Springer, Basel, pp. 41–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Entomology.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016) “Lucy” May Have Lived Alongside Several Of Her Evolutionary Cousins In Ancient Africa [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL [accessed on 7 June 2016].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1985) Evaluation of Army’s Mobile Subscriber Equipment Program ( No. NSIAD-85-117). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beal, M.E. (2013) Predictive qualities of social characteristics and social integration on altruistic outcomes (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K. & Appelbaum, B. (2017) Yellen and Trump Aide Are Said to Be on Shortlist for New Leader of the Fed. New York Times, A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gadagkar, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Gadagkar, 2011; Sato & Sato, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sato & Sato, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Saiardi et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Entomology
AbbreviationEcol. Entomol.
ISSN (print)0307-6946
ISSN (online)1365-2311
ScopeInsect Science

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