How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Robotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Robotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. C. Cantley, “Transcription. Translocating tubby,” Science, vol. 292, no. 5524, pp. 2019–2021, Jun. 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. Khosla and P. B. Harbury, “Modular enzymes,” Nature, vol. 409, no. 6817, pp. 247–252, Jan. 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Li, P. Zhang, and J. Yan, “Ab initio molecular dynamics study of high-pressure melting of beryllium oxide,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 4707, Apr. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. De Joussineau, J. Soulé, M. Martin, C. Anguille, P. Montcourrier, and D. Alexandre, “Delta-promoted filopodia mediate long-range lateral inhibition in Drosophila,” Nature, vol. 426, no. 6966, pp. 555–559, Dec. 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. A. Youssef, Machining of Stainless Steels and Super Alloys. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015.
An edited book
M. Al-Rubeai and M. Naciri, Eds., Stem Cells and Cell Therapy, vol. 8. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Nishinaga, “Planar Cyclooctatetraenes and Related Ring Systems: Antiaromaticity and Applications,” in Chemical Science of π-Electron Systems, T. Akasaka, A. Osuka, S. Fukuzumi, H. Kandori, and Y. Aso, Eds. Tokyo: Springer Japan, 2015, pp. 47–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Robotics.

Blog post
S. Luntz, “How To Find Faster-Than-Light Particles,” IFLScience, Dec. 27, 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Americans With Disabilities Act: Challenges Faced by Transit Agencies in Complying With the Act’s Requirements,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-94-58, Mar. 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. A. Smith, “Impact of animal assisted therapy reading instruction on reading performance of homeschooled students,” Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
P. Hofmann and J. Leland, “Urban Pastoral,” New York Times, p. MB7, Aug. 11, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Robotics
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Robot.
ISSN (print)1552-3098
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Control and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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