How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Robotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Robotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. J. Fortney, “Planetary science. Looking into the giant planets,” Science, vol. 305, no. 5689, pp. 1414–1415, Sep. 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Kumar and D. L. Vaux, “Apoptosis. A cinderella caspase takes center stage,” Science, vol. 297, no. 5585, pp. 1290–1291, Aug. 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Togashi, H. Sasaki, and J. Yoshimura, “A geometrical approach explains Lake Ball (Marimo) formations in the green alga, Aegagropila linnaei,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 3761, Jan. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Palleroni, C. T. Miller, M. Hauser, and P. Marler, “Predation: Prey plumage adaptation against falcon attack,” Nature, vol. 434, no. 7036, pp. 973–974, Apr. 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. I. Good, Introduction to Statistics through Resampling Methods and R/S-Plus®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
An edited book
R. Mahrwald, Ed., Enantioselective Organocatalyzed Reactions II: Asymmetric C-C Bond Formation Processes. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
R. R. Joshi, “Statistical Mining of Gene and Protein Databanks,” in Bioinformatics: Applications in Life and Environmental Sciences, M. H. Fulekar, Ed., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2009, pp. 34–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Robotics.

Blog post
R. Andrews, “First Direct Evidence That Zika Virus Causes Brain Damage,” IFLScience, May 11, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Railroad Safety: DOT Should Better Manage Its Hazardous Materials Inspection Program,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-90-43, Nov. 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H. He, “Numerical Simulations of Unsteady Flows in a Pulse Detonation Engine by the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element Method,” Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Sisario, “Reaching No.1 On the Billboard Charts,” New York Times, p. C3, Oct. 16, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Robotics
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Robot.
ISSN (print)1552-3098
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Control and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Other styles