How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Robotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Robotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. Cannon, “Sensation and loss,” Nature, vol. 503, no. 7475, pp. S2-3, Nov. 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. W. Yin and T. A. Steitz, “Structural basis for the transition from initiation to elongation transcription in T7 RNA polymerase,” Science, vol. 298, no. 5597, pp. 1387–1395, Nov. 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. M. Waterhouse, M. B. Wang, and T. Lough, “Gene silencing as an adaptive defence against viruses,” Nature, vol. 411, no. 6839, pp. 834–842, Jun. 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. C. Kwon, J. Ham, S. Kim, J.-L. Lee, and S. Y. Kim, “Eco-friendly graphene synthesis on Cu foil electroplated by reusing Cu etchants,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 4830, Apr. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. V. Silva Elipe, LC-NMR and Other Hyphenated NMR Techniques. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
F. Schiavon, G. Guglielmi, and A. Rotondo, Eds., La comunicazione radiologica nella società del benessere. Milano: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Sandkuhl, “On the Role of Enterprise Modelling in Engineering Cyber-Physical Systems,” in Perspectives in Business Informatics Research: 15th International Conference, BIR 2016, Prague, Czech Republic, September 15–16, 2016, Proceedings, V. Řepa and T. Bruckner, Eds., in Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. , Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 50–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Robotics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “The World’s New Sustainable Development Goals,” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Aviation Security: Challenges in Using Biometric Technologies,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-04-785T, May 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. Dhantole, “Evaluating provision of healthcare system in the U.S,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. G. Gustines, “Bernie Wrightson, 68, a Comic Book Artist and Swamp Thing Creator,” New York Times, p. B6, Mar. 25, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Robotics
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Robot.
ISSN (print)1552-3098
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Control and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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