How to format your references using the Ecography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huber, J. A. 2015. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY. Making methane down deep. - Science 349: 376–377.
A journal article with 2 authors
Houweling, A. R. and Brecht, M. 2008. Behavioural report of single neuron stimulation in somatosensory cortex. - Nature 451: 65–68.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mulch, A. et al. 2006. Hydrogen isotopes in Eocene river gravels and paleoelevation of the Sierra Nevada. - Science 313: 87–89.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yu, Y. et al. 2013. Room temperature rubbing for few-layer two-dimensional thin flakes directly on flexible polymer substrates. - Sci. Rep. 3: 2697.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lunt, R. R. and Cunic, J. D. 2000. Profiles in Flue Gas Desulfurization. - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
2006. Advances in Data Mining. Applications in Medicine, Web Mining, Marketing, Image and Signal Mining: 6th Industrial Conference on Data Mining, ICDM 2006, Leipzig, Germany, July 14-15, 2006. Proceedings (P Perner, Ed.). - Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, M. and He, G. 2006. Fast Mode Decision Algorithm in H.263+/H.264 Intra Transcoder. - In: Zhuang, Y. et al. (eds), Advances in Multimedia Information Processing - PCM 2006: 7th Pacific Rim Conference on Multimedia, Hangzhou, China, November 2-4, 2006. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, pp. 41–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecography.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. 2016. CERN Detects Exotic Particles Amid Rumors Of New Physics. - IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1991. Airline Competition: Weak Financial Structure Threatens Competition.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moretto, L. 2012. Exploring the Nature of the Relationship Between Decision-Driven Scenarios and Decision Confidence in High-Velocity Environments.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robertson, C. and Walsh, M. W. 2011. Debt Crisis? Bankruptcy Fears? See Jefferson County, Ala. - New York Times: A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Huber 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Houweling and Brecht 2008, Huber 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Houweling and Brecht 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Yu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcography
AbbreviationEcography (Cop.)
ISSN (print)0906-7590
ISSN (online)1600-0587
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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