How to format your references using the Ecography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Relman, D. A. 2013. Microbiology. Undernutrition--looking within for answers. - Science 339: 530–532.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zavaleta, E. S. and Hulvey, K. B. 2004. Realistic species losses disproportionately reduce grassland resistance to biological invaders. - Science 306: 1175–1177.
A journal article with 3 authors
Irie, M. et al. 2001. Reversible surface morphology changes of a photochromic diarylethene single crystal by photoirradiation. - Science 291: 1769–1772.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Workman, C. T. et al. 2006. A systems approach to mapping DNA damage response pathways. - Science 312: 1054–1059.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shi, Y. et al. 2017. Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power Systems. - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
2015. Handbook of Petroleum Processing (SA Treese, PR Pujadó, and DSJ Jones, Eds.). - Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Barrieu, P. and el Karoui, N. 2008. Dynamic Financial Risk Management. - In: Yor, M. (ed), Aspects of Mathematical Finance. Springer, pp. 23–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. MRI Study Finds That Infants Experience Pain In The Same Way Adults Do. - IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1976. Review of the Office of Education’s Basic Educational Opportunity Grant Program.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cox, D. C. 2008. A measurement of the neutral current neutrino-nucleon elastic cross section at MiniBooNE.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. 2017. Venezuela Tops Italy in Marathon. - New York Times: SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Relman 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Zavaleta and Hulvey 2004, Relman 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zavaleta and Hulvey 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Workman et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcography
AbbreviationEcography (Cop.)
ISSN (print)0906-7590
ISSN (online)1600-0587
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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