How to format your references using the Ecography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knapp, S. 2013. Evolution. What, where, and when? - Science 341: 1182–1184.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lujambio, A. and Lowe, S. W. 2012. The microcosmos of cancer. - Nature 482: 347–355.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barta, A. et al. 2001. Mechanism of ribosomal peptide bond formation. - Science 291: 203.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lui, C. H. et al. 2009. Ultraflat graphene. - Nature 462: 339–341.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nahar, L. and Sarker, S. D. 2012. Steroid Dimers. - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
2016. Violent Reverberations: Global Modalities of Trauma (V Broch-Due and BE Bertelsen, Eds.). - Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bos, H. et al. 2009. Future Threats to Future Trust. - In: Gawrock, D. et al. (eds), Future of Trust in Computing: Proceedings of the First International Conference Future of Trust in Computing 2008. Vieweg+Teubner, pp. 49–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014. Newly Discovered Fossils Hint That All Dinosaurs May Have Had Feathers. - IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2009. Space Acquisitions: DOD Faces Substantial Challenges in Developing New Space Systems.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, A. S. 2017. Fatigue Behavior and Microstructure of Direct Laser Deposited Inconel 718 Alloy.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, L. 2009. Christina Matthews, Benjamin Macfarland III. - New York Times: ST11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knapp 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Lujambio and Lowe 2012, Knapp 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lujambio and Lowe 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Lui et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcography
AbbreviationEcography (Cop.)
ISSN (print)0906-7590
ISSN (online)1600-0587
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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