How to format your references using the Ecography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lemaire, P. 2006. Developmental biology. How many ways to make a chordate? - Science 312: 1145–1146.
A journal article with 2 authors
Caldeira, K. and Wickett, M. E. 2003. Oceanography: anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. - Nature 425: 365.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bouvier, F. et al. 2003. Biosynthesis of the food and cosmetic plant pigment bixin (annatto). - Science 300: 2089–2091.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yasunaga, M. et al. 2013. The significance of microscopic mass spectrometry with high resolution in the visualisation of drug distribution. - Sci. Rep. 3: 3050.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abner, D. J. 2010. The ETF Handbook. - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
2012. OpenMP in a Heterogeneous World: 8th International Workshop on OpenMP, IWOMP 2012, Rome, Italy, June 11-13, 2012. Proceedings (BM Chapman, F Massaioli, MS Müller, and M Rorro, Eds.). - Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bodea, C.-N. 2009. Project Management Competences Development Using an Ontology-Based e-Learning Platform. - In: Lytras, M. D. et al. (eds), Visioning and Engineering the Knowledge Society. A Web Science Perspective: Second World Summit on the Knowledge Society, WSKS 2009, Chania, Crete, Greece, September 16-18, 2009. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, pp. 31–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecography.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2014. Watch Japan’s Maglev Train Reach Speeds Of 500km/h. - IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2016. Management Agenda for the Presidential and Congressional Transition: Develop and Manage Information Technology to Meet the Government’s Needs.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Belletti, A. 2017. Trumpet Practice: Habits and Goals.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J. C., Jr 2017. Man Charged With Murder In Shooting At Rap Show. - New York Times: A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lemaire 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Caldeira and Wickett 2003, Lemaire 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Caldeira and Wickett 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Yasunaga et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcography
AbbreviationEcography (Cop.)
ISSN (print)0906-7590
ISSN (online)1600-0587
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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