How to format your references using the Ecography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Proctor, R. N. 2000. Expert witnesses take the stand. - Nature 407: 15–16.
A journal article with 2 authors
Podgornaia, A. I. and Laub, M. T. 2015. Protein evolution. Pervasive degeneracy and epistasis in a protein-protein interface. - Science 347: 673–677.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pergams, O. R. W. et al. 2003. Mammalian microevolution: Rapid change in mouse mitochondrial DNA. - Nature 423: 397.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rambaut, A. et al. 2008. The genomic and epidemiological dynamics of human influenza A virus. - Nature 453: 615–619.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schiesser, W. E. 2017. Spline Collocation Methods for Partial Differential Equations. - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
2010. Reasoning Web. Semantic Technologies for Software Engineering: 6th International Summer School 2010, Dresden, Germany, August 30 - September 3, 2010. Tutorial Lectures (U Aßmann, A Bartho, and C Wende, Eds.). - Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Khattab, A. et al. 2013. Rate-Adaptive Probabilistic Approach for Opportunistic Spectrum Access. - In: Perkins, D. and Bayoumi, M. (eds), Cognitive Radio Networks: From Theory to Practice. Springer, pp. 41–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Would You Cover Yourself In Fish Slime To Protect Against The Sun? - IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1988. Competition: Information on Federally Funded Research and Development Centers.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bowmar, J. S. 2012. Building Energy Efficiency and Resilience in the United States, One Disaster at a Time: Fostering Green Building Principles through Disaster Assistance.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. 2016. The Illustrated Stories of Teenagers, Told With Humor and a Light Heart. - New York Times: B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Proctor 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Proctor 2000, Podgornaia and Laub 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Podgornaia and Laub 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Rambaut et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcography
AbbreviationEcography (Cop.)
ISSN (print)0906-7590
ISSN (online)1600-0587
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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