How to format your references using the Ecography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gibson, M. 2003. Conservation. Fate of Iraqi archaeology. - Science 299: 1848–1849.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hupp, J. T. and Poeppelmeier, K. R. 2005. Chemistry. Better living through nanopore chemistry. - Science 309: 2008–2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, C. C. et al. 2010. Vanadium nitrogenase reduces CO. - Science 329: 642.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Devireddy, L. R. et al. 2001. Induction of apoptosis by a secreted lipocalin that is transcriptionally regulated by IL-3 deprivation. - Science 293: 829–834.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bain, B. J. et al. 2010. Variant Haemoglobins. - Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
2010. Encyclopedia of Cross-Cultural School Psychology (CS Clauss-Ehlers, Ed.). - Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Hall, M. J. W. and Reginatto, M. 2016. Thermodynamics and Mixtures on Configuration Space. - In: Reginatto, M. (ed), Ensembles on Configuration Space: Classical, Quantum, and Beyond. Fundamental Theories of Physics. Springer International Publishing, pp. 61–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecography.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2015. New Telescopes Reveal Io’s Lake Of Lava. - IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1992. Air Traffic Control: Challenges Facing FAA’s Modernization Program.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nelson, P. T. 2008. Sound as a gateway to a personal relationship with nature.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. 2011. Five Years Later, A Different Outcome. - New York Times: B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gibson 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Gibson 2003, Hupp and Poeppelmeier 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hupp and Poeppelmeier 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Devireddy et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcography
AbbreviationEcography (Cop.)
ISSN (print)0906-7590
ISSN (online)1600-0587
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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