How to format your references using the Ecography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wager, J. F. 2003. Applied physics. Transparent electronics. - Science 300: 1245–1246.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bergink, S. and Jentsch, S. 2009. Principles of ubiquitin and SUMO modifications in DNA repair. - Nature 458: 461–467.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coyte, K. Z. et al. 2015. The ecology of the microbiome: Networks, competition, and stability. - Science 350: 663–666.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Trocha, P. et al. 2018. Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs. - Science 359: 887–891.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mascia, L. 2011. Polymers in Industry from A-Z. - Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
2015. Advanced Research in Data Privacy (G Navarro-Arribas and V Torra, Eds.). - Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
de Visser, S. et al. 2013. Ecosystem Engineers, Keystone Species. - In: Leemans, R. (ed), Ecological Systems: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology. Springer, pp. 59–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecography.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2014. Eagle Flight Recorder Reveals Clever Wing Tuck Trick. - IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1978. Concurrent Development and Production of MK-12A Reentry Vehicle.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson, R. A. 2011. Spectroelectrochemical Sensing and Detection of Zinc in Serum by Anodic Stripping Voltammerty on a Bismuth Film Electrode.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Wyndham, S. 2017. The Circles of Hellhaus. - New York Times: BR19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wager 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Wager 2003, Bergink and Jentsch 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bergink and Jentsch 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Trocha et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcography
AbbreviationEcography (Cop.)
ISSN (print)0906-7590
ISSN (online)1600-0587
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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