How to format your references using the Ecography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McKinney, J. D. 2014. Technology: Photonics illuminates the future of radar. - Nature 507: 310–311.
A journal article with 2 authors
Turi, L. and Madarász, A. 2011. Comment on “Does the hydrated electron occupy a cavity?” - Science 331: 1387; author reply 1387.
A journal article with 3 authors
Orihara, Y. et al. 2014. Preseismic changes of the level and temperature of confined groundwater related to the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. - Sci. Rep. 4: 6907.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sheng, C.-X. et al. 2013. Ultrafast intersystem-crossing in platinum containing π-conjugated polymers with tunable spin-orbit coupling. - Sci. Rep. 3: 2653.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Halstead, P. 2014. Two Oxen Ahead. - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
2009. Maternal and Child Health: Global Challenges, Programs, and Policies (J Ehiri, Ed.). - Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Shen, J. et al. 2015. Reconceptualizing a College Science Learning Experience in the New Digital Era: A Review of Literature. - In: Ge, X. et al. (eds), Emerging Technologies for STEAM Education: Full STEAM Ahead. Springer International Publishing, pp. 61–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecography.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2014. Twelve Year Old Discovers New Spider Genus. - IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2012. Students with Disabilities: Better Federal Coordination Could Lessen Challenges in the Transition from High School.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grayson, N. 2014. Development of a preliminary scale of counterproductive experiences in supervision: Attitudes of clinical psychology doctoral students.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Waldman, J. 2017. Thoreau’s Distressing Canoe Trip. - New York Times: A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McKinney 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Turi and Madarász 2011, McKinney 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Turi and Madarász 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Sheng et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcography
AbbreviationEcography (Cop.)
ISSN (print)0906-7590
ISSN (online)1600-0587
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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