How to format your references using the EClinicalMedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EClinicalMedicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Seiradakis JH. Pulsar astronomy. Older than they look. Nature 2000;406:139–40.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Quasdorf KW, Overman LE. Catalytic enantioselective synthesis of quaternary carbon stereocentres. Nature 2014;516:181–91.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Xu X, Han F, Zhao Q. Homologies and homeotic transformation of the theropod “semilunate” carpal. Sci Rep 2014;4:6042.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Park JY, Ogletree DF, Salmeron M, Ribeiro RA, Canfield PC, Jenks CJ, et al. High frictional anisotropy of periodic and aperiodic directions on a quasicrystal surface. Science 2005;309:1354–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Early WF II. Contractor and Client Relations to Assure Process Safety. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
[1]
Voronkov A, editor. Rewriting Techniques and Applications: 19th International Conference, RTA 2008 Hagenberg, Austria, July 15-17, 2008 Proceedings. vol. 5117. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Correa L. Qualitative Choice and Logit Models Applied to Price Optimization. In: Elleithy K, editor. Innovations and Advanced Techniques in Systems, Computing Sciences and Software Engineering, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008, p. 15–20.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EClinicalMedicine.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Second Inexplicable Die Off Of 60,000 Antelopes. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/second-inexplicable-die-60000-antelope/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. D.C. Nonappropriated Revenue. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Fulton E. Differential effects of nicotine on prospective memory, sustained attention, and working memory. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Wilson M. An Unconventional Witness. New York Times 2017:A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEClinicalMedicine
ISSN (print)2589-5370
Scope

Other styles