How to format your references using the EClinicalMedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EClinicalMedicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bodelier PLE. Sustainability: Bypassing the methane cycle. Nature 2015;523:534–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trembleau L, Rebek J Jr. Helical conformation of alkanes in a hydrophobic cavitand. Science 2003;301:1219–20.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zimmerman A, Bai L, Ginty DD. The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin. Science 2014;346:950–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Park H, Chang S, Smith M, Gradečak S, Kong J. Interface engineering of graphene for universal applications as both anode and cathode in organic photovoltaics. Sci Rep 2013;3:1581.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bernstein L, Yuhas CM. Trustworthy Systems through Quantitative Software Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Omasa K, Nouchi I, Kok LJD, editors. Plant Responses to Air Pollution and Global Change. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Oestmo S, Janssen MA, Marean CW. Testing Brantingham’s Neutral Model: The Effect of Spatial Clustering on Stone Raw Material Procurement. In: Barceló JA, Del Castillo F, editors. Simulating Prehistoric and Ancient Worlds, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 175–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EClinicalMedicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Dog Brains Process Human Speech In The Same Way We Do. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Customs Service Modernization: Management Improvements Needed on High-Risk Automated Commercial Environment Project. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Litt D. Social networking sites and adolescent alcohol use: The role of social images, social norms, and social comparison. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly D. Mother Fixation. New York Times 2000:79.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEClinicalMedicine
ISSN (print)2589-5370

Other styles