How to format your references using the EClinicalMedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EClinicalMedicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hobson KA. Ecology. Incredible journeys. Science 2002;295:981–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
He W, Ren T. Basilar membrane vibration is not involved in the reverse propagation of otoacoustic emissions. Sci Rep 2013;3:1874.
A journal article with 3 authors
Parry M, Lowe J, Hanson C. Overshoot, adapt and recover. Nature 2009;458:1102–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schmid B, Ribbe MW, Einsle O, Yoshida M, Thomas LM, Dean DR, et al. Structure of a cofactor-deficient nitrogenase MoFe protein. Science 2002;296:352–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ellis R. Language Teaching Research and Language Pedagogy. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Catania B, Cerquitelli T, Chiusano S, Guerrini G, Kämpf M, Kemper A, et al., editors. New Trends in Databases and Information Systems: 17th East European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems. vol. 241. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Hart SGE. Safety Pharmacology of Drugs for the Urinary Tract. In: Vogel HG, Hock FJ, Maas J, Mayer D, editors. Drug Discovery and Evaluation: Safety and Pharmacokinetic Assays, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006, p. 95–140.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EClinicalMedicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Bird Tree Of Life Shows ‘Explosive Evolution’: Studies. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Trust and Other Earmarked Funds: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kapatsinski V. The architecture of grammar in artificial grammar learning: Formal biases in the acquisition of morphophonology and the nature of the learning task. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. A New Battleground for an Old War: The Internet. New York Times 2001:1410.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEClinicalMedicine
ISSN (print)2589-5370

Other styles