How to format your references using the EClinicalMedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EClinicalMedicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stanley GD Jr. Ecology. Photosymbiosis and the evolution of modern coral reefs. Science 2006;312:857–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Virgin HW, Walker BD. Immunology and the elusive AIDS vaccine. Nature 2010;464:224–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakuragi S, Tominaga-Yoshino K, Ogura A. Involvement of TrkB- and p75(NTR)-signaling pathways in two contrasting forms of long-lasting synaptic plasticity. Sci Rep 2013;3:3185.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim JY, Oh M-W, Lee S, Cho YC, Yoon J-H, Lee GW, et al. Abnormal drop in electrical resistivity with impurity doping of single-crystal Ag. Sci Rep 2014;4:5450.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hanzo L, Maunder RG, Wang J, Yang L-L. Near-Capacity Variable-Length Coding. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Gresele P, Born GVR, Patrono C, Page CP, editors. Antiplatelet Agents. vol. 210. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Marginson S. Nation-States, Educational Traditions and the WCU Project. In: Shin JC, Kehm BM, editors. Institutionalization of World-Class University in Global Competition, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013, p. 59–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EClinicalMedicine.

Blog post
Andrew D. Neonicotinoids Linked To Wild Bee And Butterfly Declines In Europe And US. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Johnson Space Center Procurement: Controls Over Payments to Contractors Should Be Strengthened. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adams S. A study of childhood eating habits in the United States and their association with race and gender. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Court Upholds Child Pornography Law, Despite Free Speech Concerns. New York Times 2008:A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEClinicalMedicine
ISSN (print)2589-5370

Other styles