How to format your references using the EClinicalMedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EClinicalMedicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Okasha S. Altruism researchers must cooperate. Nature 2010;467:653–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Long CA, Hoffman SL. Parasitology. Malaria--from infants to genomics to vaccines. Science 2002;297:345–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Mollicone D, Eva HD, Achard F. Ecology: human role in Russian wild fires. Nature 2006;440:436–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Walsh DM, Klyubin I, Fadeeva JV, Cullen WK, Anwyl R, Wolfe MS, et al. Naturally secreted oligomers of amyloid beta protein potently inhibit hippocampal long-term potentiation in vivo. Nature 2002;416:535–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Merrills J, Fisher J. Pharmacy Law and Practice. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
[1]
Meyer B, Nawrocki JR, Walter B, editors. Balancing Agility and Formalism in Software Engineering: Second IFIP TC 2 Central and East European Conference on Software Engineering Techniques, CEE-SET 2007, Poznan, Poland, October 10-12, 2007, Revised Selected Papers. vol. 5082. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
de los Rios S, Cabrera-Umpierrez MF, Arredondo MT, Paramo M, Tijus C, Djebbari E, et al. Living Lab Concept Validation Experiment to Experience COOLTURA in the Cité Des Science et de L’Industrie. In: Antona M, Stephanidis C, editors. Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Access to the Human Environment and Culture: 9th International Conference, UAHCI 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings, Part IV, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 41–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EClinicalMedicine.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Hurricane Forecast Accuracy Is Improving, But Don’t Overly Focus On The Skinny Black Line. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/hurricane-forecast-accuracy-improving-don-t-overly-focus-skinny-black-line/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. 2020 Census: Prioritized Information Technology Research and Testing Is Needed for Census Design Decisions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Naro A. The effects of the structural components of 4-H residential summer programs on the achievement of the essential elements of positive youth development and the acquisition of targeted life skills. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Poniewozik J. A Tabloid Murder Tale of Little Suspense. New York Times 2017:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEClinicalMedicine
ISSN (print)2589-5370
Scope

Other styles