How to format your references using the EClinicalMedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EClinicalMedicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Baulcombe D. Plant science. Small RNA--the secret of noble rot. Science 2013;342:45–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Fodde R, Smits R. Cancer biology. A matter of dosage. Science 2002;298:761–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Moynier F, Yin Q-Z, Schauble E. Isotopic evidence of Cr partitioning into Earth’s core. Science 2011;331:1417–20.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Hauert C, Traulsen A, Brandt H, Nowak MA, Sigmund K. Via freedom to coercion: the emergence of costly punishment. Science 2007;316:1905–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Beagle JR. Surgical Essentials of Immediate Implant Dentistry. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
[1]
Li W, editor. Contemporary Ecology Research in China. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Hajdul M. Coordination Model of Transport Processes Based on Sustainable Development Concept. In: Golinska P, Hajdul M, editors. Sustainable Transport: New Trends and Business Practices, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 83–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EClinicalMedicine.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Pseudoscience And Conspiracy Theory Are Not Victimless Crimes Against Science. IFLScience 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership Today Needed To Prevent Future Disruption of Government Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Lutchman C. Leadership impact on turnover among power engineers in the Oil Sands of Alberta. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Roach M. Not an Accident. New York Times 2016:BR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEClinicalMedicine
ISSN (print)2589-5370
Scope

Other styles