How to format your references using the Connection Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Connection Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cruikshank, D. P. (2010). Planetary science. Generating an atmosphere. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6012), 1755–1756.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kawaguchi, S., & Ng, D. T. W. (2011). Cell biology. Sensing ER stress. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6051), 1830–1831.
A journal article with 3 authors
Truckses, D. M., Garrenton, L. S., & Thorner, J. (2004). Jekyll and Hyde in the microbial world. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5701), 1509–1511.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chang, S.-L., Lin, S.-Y., Lin, S.-K., Lee, C.-H., & Lin, M.-F. (2014). Geometric and electronic properties of edge-decorated graphene nanoribbons. Scientific Reports, 4, 6038.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Donham, K. J., & Thelin, A. (2016). Agricultural Medicine. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Guerrieri, A., Loscri, V., Rovella, A., & Fortino, G. (Eds.). (2016). Management of Cyber Physical Objects in the Future Internet of Things: Methods, Architectures and Applications (1st ed. 2016). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosales-López, A., & Ortiz-Posadas, M. R. (2009). A Distribution Strategy for Imaging Centers in the Costa Rican Public Health System. In O. Dössel & W. C. Schlegel (Eds.), World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, September 7 - 12, 2009, Munich, Germany: Vol. 25/12 General Subjects (pp. 12–15). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Connection Science.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, October 4). Man Documents The Moments After He Survives Two Bear Attacks. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Readiness of the Telecommunications Industry (No. AIMD-99-293). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tsai, H.-Y. (2006). Elucidating the Role of Protein Cofactors in RNA Catalysis Using Ribonuclease P as the Model System (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D. A. (2006, September 18). Drink Lots of Fluids, and Save Time for a Frisking. New York Times, p. SPG2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cruikshank, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Cruikshank, 2010; Kawaguchi & Ng, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kawaguchi & Ng, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Truckses, Garrenton, & Thorner, 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chang, Lin, Lin, Lee, & Lin, 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleConnection Science
AbbreviationConn. Sci.
ISSN (print)0954-0091
ISSN (online)1360-0494
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Human-Computer Interaction

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