How to format your references using the Connection Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Connection Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Engelman, D. M. (2005). Membranes are more mosaic than fluid. Nature, 438(7068), 578–580.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sablowski, R., & Harberd, N. P. (2005). Plant sciences. Plant genes on steroids. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5715), 1569–1570.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hembacher, S., Giessibl, F. J., & Mannhart, J. (2004). Force microscopy with light-atom probes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5682), 380–383.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Aten, J. A., Stap, J., Krawczyk, P. M., van Oven, C. H., Hoebe, R. A., Essers, J., & Kanaar, R. (2004). Dynamics of DNA double-strand breaks revealed by clustering of damaged chromosome domains. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5654), 92–95.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gavin, H., & Porter, T. (2014). Female Aggression. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Plaisance, K. S., & Reydon, T. A. C. (Eds.). (2012). Philosophy of Behavioral Biology (Vol. 282). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Sheng, Y., Welling, W. S., & Zhu, M. M. (2015). GPU-Accelerated Computing with Gibbs Sampler for the 2PNO IRT Model. In L. A. van der Ark, D. M. Bolt, W.-C. Wang, J. A. Douglas, & S.-M. Chow (Eds.), Quantitative Psychology Research: The 79th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society, Madison, Wisconsin, 2014 (pp. 59–73). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Connection Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 2). That Sinking Feeling… Could Cavities on Comet Pose yet Another Risk to Philae? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1984). Followup Review of the National Science Foundation’s Conflict of Interest Resolution System for Short-Term Employees (RCED-84-35). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Learn, D. T. (2012). Differentiating instruction on the basis of cognitive tools: A case study of honors and mainstream middle school classes [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992, September 27). Merely Mortal; Bunch That Lunched On Democrats Is Missing Its Edge. New York Times, 41.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Engelman, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Engelman, 2005; Sablowski & Harberd, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sablowski & Harberd, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Hembacher et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Aten et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleConnection Science
AbbreviationConn. Sci.
ISSN (print)0954-0091
ISSN (online)1360-0494
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Human-Computer Interaction

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