How to format your references using the Connection Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Connection Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service, R. F. (2008). Structural biology. Protein structure initiative: phase 3 or phase out. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5870), 1610–1613.
A journal article with 2 authors
Capraro, V., & Marcelletti, A. (2014). Do good actions inspire good actions in others? Scientific Reports, 4, 7470.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pfingsten, J. S., Costantino, D. A., & Kieft, J. S. (2006). Structural basis for ribosome recruitment and manipulation by a viral IRES RNA. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5804), 1450–1454.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, X., Yang, C., Chai, J., Shi, Y., & Xue, D. (2002). Mechanisms of AIF-mediated apoptotic DNA degradation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5598), 1587–1592.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yoder, C. H., Leber, P. A., & Thomsen, M. W. (2010). The Bridge to Organic Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Drira, K. (Ed.). (2013). Software Architecture: 7th European Conference, ECSA 2013, Montpellier, France, July 1-5, 2013. Proceedings (Vol. 7957). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Engewald, W., & Dettmer-Wilde, K. (2014). Selection of Capillary Columns and Operating Conditions. In K. Dettmer-Wilde & W. Engewald (Eds.), Practical Gas Chromatography: A Comprehensive Reference (pp. 117–160). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Connection Science.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, September 8). Human-Chimp Ancestor Was Similar To Modern African Apes. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Transportation Safety: Federal Highway Administration Should Conduct Research to Determine Best Practices in Permitting Oversize Vehicles (GAO-15-236). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lazor, D. L. (2010). “Festen”: A celebration (of the imagination!) [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. (1999, November 21). Cadets Can’t Catch Cougars. New York Times, 811.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Service, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Capraro & Marcelletti, 2014; Service, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Capraro & Marcelletti, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Pfingsten et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleConnection Science
AbbreviationConn. Sci.
ISSN (print)0954-0091
ISSN (online)1360-0494
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Human-Computer Interaction

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