How to format your references using the Connection Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Connection Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crow, J. M. (2012). HPV: The global burden. Nature, 488(7413), S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wickens, M., & Gonzalez, T. N. (2004). Molecular biology. Knives, accomplices, and RNA. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5700), 1299–1300.
A journal article with 3 authors
Iwamoto, M., Matsunaga, S., & Oiki, S. (2014). Paradoxical one-ion pore behavior of the long β-helical peptide of marine cytotoxic polytheonamide B. Scientific Reports, 4, 3636.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Shao, J., Yuan, L., Hu, X., Wu, Y., & Zhang, Z. (2014). The effect of nano confinement on the C-h activation and its corresponding structure-activity relationship. Scientific Reports, 4, 7225.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Subramanian, M. N. (2013). Plastics Additives and Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Vega, W. A., Markides, K. S., Angel, J. L., & Torres-Gil, F. M. (Eds.). (2015). Challenges of Latino Aging in the Americas. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Gonçalves, S. I. (2009). Multimodality in Brain Imaging: Methodologic Aspects and Applications. In J. M. R. S. Tavares & R. M. N. Jorge (Eds.), Advances in Computational Vision and Medical Image Processing: Methods and Applications (pp. 93–103). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Connection Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 23). Wearing Skinny Jeans Could Lead To Permanent Nerve Damage. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1975). Federal Funding Provided to 10 Police Departments for Intelligence Activities (GGD-76-20). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eaglin, M. (2012). A secondary data analysis of Latino families who successfully terminated with family preservation [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tomasky, M. (2017, September 8). A Bad Deal for Democrats. New York Times, A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crow, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Crow, 2012; Wickens & Gonzalez, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wickens & Gonzalez, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Iwamoto et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Shao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleConnection Science
AbbreviationConn. Sci.
ISSN (print)0954-0091
ISSN (online)1360-0494
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Human-Computer Interaction

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