How to format your references using the Earth System Governance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth System Governance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buiter, S., 2014. Geodynamics: How plumes help to break plates. Nature 513, 36–37.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ralph, T.C., Boyd, R.W., 2007. PHYSICS. Better computing with photons. Science 318, 1251–1252.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wojtak, R., Hansen, S.H., Hjorth, J., 2011. Gravitational redshift of galaxies in clusters as predicted by general relativity. Nature 477, 567–569.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Faraci, G., Pennisi, A.R., Alberti, A., Ruggeri, R., Mannino, G., 2013. Giant photoluminescence emission in crystalline faceted Si grains. Sci. Rep. 3, 2674.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kroupa, V.F., 2005. Phase Lock Loops and Frequency Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Schuster, A. (Ed.), 2008. Robust Intelligent Systems, 1st ed. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Stangenberg, F., Breitenbücher, R., Bruhns, O.T., Hartmann, D., Höffer, R., Kuhl, D., Meschke, G., 2009. Methodological Implementation, in: Breitenbücher, R., Bruhns, O.T., Hartmann, D., Höffer, R., Kuhl, D., Meschke, G. (Eds.), Lifetime-Oriented Structural Design Concepts. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 365–652.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth System Governance.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Three Mile High Volcanic Eruption Captured In Dazzling Infrared [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1981. Major Science and Technology Issues (No. PAD-81-35). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Turney, J.J., 2014. Police supervisory attributes that influence attitude towards Critical Incident Stress Management programs (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., 2017. Child Custody Fight May Sideline Azarenka. New York Times B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buiter, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Buiter, 2014; Ralph and Boyd, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ralph and Boyd, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Faraci et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth System Governance
ISSN (print)2589-8116

Other styles