How to format your references using the Earth System Governance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth System Governance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hogan, C.J., 2002. Cosmology. The beginning of time. Science 295, 2223–2225.
A journal article with 2 authors
Horvath, P., Barrangou, R., 2010. CRISPR/Cas, the immune system of bacteria and archaea. Science 327, 167–170.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cox, D., Meyers, E., Sinha, P., 2004. Contextually evoked object-specific responses in human visual cortex. Science 304, 115–117.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Colaprete, A., Schultz, P., Heldmann, J., Wooden, D., Shirley, M., Ennico, K., Hermalyn, B., Marshall, W., Ricco, A., Elphic, R.C., Goldstein, D., Summy, D., Bart, G.D., Asphaug, E., Korycansky, D., Landis, D., Sollitt, L., 2010. Detection of water in the LCROSS ejecta plume. Science 330, 463–468.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Furmston, M., 2008. Powell-Smith & Furmston’s Building Contract Casebook. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Icard, T., Muskens, R. (Eds.), 2010. Interfaces: Explorations in Logic, Language and Computation: ESSLLI 2008 and ESSLLI 2009 Student Sessions. Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kotulski, Z., Szczepiński, W., 2010. Two-dimensional Distributions, in: Szczepinski, W. (Ed.), Error Analysis with Applications in Engineering, Solid Mechanics and Its Applications. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 107–147.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth System Governance.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Watch this Robot Jump like a Frog [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Weather Forecasting: New Processing System Faces Uncertainties and Risks (No. T-AIMD-96-47). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barbeau, S.J., 2012. A Location-Aware Architecture Supporting Intelligent Real-Time Mobile Applications (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bromwich, J.E., 2017. Real-Life Harvey and Irma Marvel at the Hurricanes. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hogan, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Hogan, 2002; Horvath and Barrangou, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Horvath and Barrangou, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Colaprete et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth System Governance
ISSN (print)2589-8116

Other styles