How to format your references using the Earth System Governance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth System Governance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nichols, C.G., 2006. KATP channels as molecular sensors of cellular metabolism. Nature 440, 470–476.
A journal article with 2 authors
Keusch, G.T., Medlin, C.A., 2003. Tapping the power of small institutions. Nature 422, 561–562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murthy, V.R., van Westrenen, W., Fei, Y., 2003. Experimental evidence that potassium is a substantial radioactive heat source in planetary cores. Nature 423, 163–165.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chaudhuri, J., Tian, M., Khuong, C., Chua, K., Pinaud, E., Alt, F.W., 2003. Transcription-targeted DNA deamination by the AID antibody diversification enzyme. Nature 422, 726–730.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Murphy, D.B., Davidson, M.W., 2012. Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Electronic Imaging. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Weigel, S., Scharbert, G. (Eds.), 2016. A Neuro-Psychoanalytical Dialogue for Bridging Freud and the Neurosciences, 1st ed. 2016. ed. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Zúñiga, S., Sola, I., Moreno, J.L., Alonso, S., Enjuanes, L., 2006. Regulation of Coronavirus Transcription: Viral and Cellular Proteins Interacting with Transcription-Regulating Sequences, in: Perlman, S., Holmes, K.V. (Eds.), The Nidoviruses: Toward Control of SARS and Other Nidovirus Diseases, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 31–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth System Governance.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2016. How Psychology Can Help Us Solve Climate Change [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Internet Management: Limited Progress on Privatization Project Makes Outcome Uncertain (No. GAO-02-805T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carver, A., 2017. From under the blanket (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Salms-Moss, S., 2016. Absolutely Final Delivery. New York Times A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nichols, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Keusch and Medlin, 2003; Nichols, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Keusch and Medlin, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Chaudhuri et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth System Governance
ISSN (print)2589-8116

Other styles