How to format your references using the Earth System Governance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth System Governance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knight, J., 2003. Meeting aims to find brain’s benchmarks for beauty. Nature 421, 305.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rafii, S., Lyden, D., 2008. Cancer. A few to flip the angiogenic switch. Science 319, 163–164.
A journal article with 3 authors
Penner, J.E., Dong, X., Chen, Y., 2004. Observational evidence of a change in radiative forcing due to the indirect aerosol effect. Nature 427, 231–234.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Holt, J.K., Park, H.G., Wang, Y., Stadermann, M., Artyukhin, A.B., Grigoropoulos, C.P., Noy, A., Bakajin, O., 2006. Fast mass transport through sub-2-nanometer carbon nanotubes. Science 312, 1034–1037.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cross, M., MacDonald, B., 2008. Nutrition in Institutions. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Kamihira, M., Katakura, Y., Ito, A. (Eds.), 2010. Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects: Proceedings of the 21st Annual and International Meeting of the Japanese Association for Animal Cell Technology (JAACT), Fukuoka, Japan, November 24-27, 2008, Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Koulaouzidis, A., Douglas, S., Plevris, J.N., 2014. Oesophageal Capsule Endoscopy, in: Li, Z., Liao, Z., McAlindon, M. (Eds.), Handbook of Capsule Endoscopy. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 119–128.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth System Governance.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. The Hunt For ET Will Boost Australian Astronomy [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. Highway Infrastructure: FHWA’s Model for Estimating Highway Needs Has Been Modified for State-Level Planning (No. GAO-01-299). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ponti, C.M., 2010. The musical representation of Asian characters in the musicals of Richard Rodgers (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2017. Victory for Morale Precedes an Actual Loss. New York Times SP8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knight, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Knight, 2003; Rafii and Lyden, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rafii and Lyden, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Holt et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth System Governance
ISSN (print)2589-8116

Other styles