How to format your references using the Earth System Governance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth System Governance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Viseu, A., 2015. Integration of social science into research is crucial. Nature 525, 291.
A journal article with 2 authors
Park, J., Yook, S.-H., 2014. Bayesian inference of natural rankings in incomplete competition networks. Sci. Rep. 4, 6212.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, Y., Zhang, X., Cao, D., 2013. The role of shape complementarity in the protein-protein interactions. Sci. Rep. 3, 3271.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cooke, J., Sullivan, M., Barton, E.J., Bullock, J.S., Carlberg, R.G., Gal-Yam, A., Tollerud, E., 2009. Type IIn supernovae at redshift z approximately 2 from archival data. Nature 460, 237–239.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhu, Q.K., 2005. Power Distribution Network Design For VLSI. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Abu el Ata, N., 2016. The Tyranny of Uncertainty: A New Framework to Predict, Remediate and Monitor Risk. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Qi, G., Lei, H., Jing, P., Fu, G., He, H., Guo, Q., 2014. Laser Shearography Testing for Aircraft Composite and Honeycomb Components, in: Wang, J. (Ed.), Proceedings of the First Symposium on Aviation Maintenance and Management-Volume I, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 39–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth System Governance.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Meet Viserion And Drogon: The New Ant Species Named After The Game Of Thrones Dragons [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Student Financial Aid: Need Determination Could Be Enhanced through Improvements in Education’s Estimate of Applicants’ State Tax Payments (No. GAO-05-105). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hrivnak, G.A., 2009. Extending a model of leader -member exchange development: Individual and dyadic effects of personality, similarity and liking (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, J., 2017. Europeans Vote to Alter Visa Rules of Americans. New York Times A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Viseu, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Park and Yook, 2014; Viseu, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Park and Yook, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Cooke et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth System Governance
ISSN (print)2589-8116

Other styles