How to format your references using the The Journal of Roman Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Roman Studies (JRS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q. 2008: ‘Westernizing Eastern-bloc science’, Nature 453, 558–559.
A journal article with 2 authors
Collerson, K. D., and Weisler, M. I. 2007: ‘Stone adze compositions and the extent of ancient Polynesian voyaging and trade’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 317, 1907–1911.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arnqvist, G., Jones, T. M., and Elgar, M. A. 2003: ‘Insect behaviour: reversal of sex roles in nuptial feeding’, Nature 424, 387.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lanzetti, L., Rybin, V., Malabarba, M. G., Christoforidis, S., Scita, G., Zerial, M., and Di Fiore, P. P. 2000: ‘The Eps8 protein coordinates EGF receptor signalling through Rac and trafficking through Rab5’, Nature 408, 374–377.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety 1996: Guidelines for Use of Vapor Cloud Dispersion Models, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Collet, P., Tomassini, M., Ebner, M., Gustafson, S., and Ekárt, A. (eds) 2006: Genetic Programming: 9th European Conference, EuroGP 2006, Budapest, Hungary, April 10-12, 2006. Proceedings, Vol. 3905. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Marques de Sá, J. P. 2007: ‘Parametric Tests of Hypotheses’, in J. P. Marques de Sá (ed.), Applied Statistics Using SPSS, STATISTICA, MATLAB and R, Berlin, Heidelberg, 111–169.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Roman Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015: ‘An Artificial Pancreas Has Just Made Giving Birth Safer For Diabetic Women’, IFLScience. Available from <>. . Accessed30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1994: [Comments on DOD Data Center Consolidation Plan], Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jaffer, S. 2013: ‘Harnessing innovation in the 21st century: the impact of leadership styles’, Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chavez, L. 2011: ‘Quotation of the Day’, New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Roman Studies
AbbreviationJ. Rom. Stud.
ISSN (print)0075-4358
ISSN (online)1753-528X
Literature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts

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