How to format your references using the The Journal of Roman Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Roman Studies (JRS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bloom, B. R. 2011: ‘WHO needs change’, Nature 473, 143–145.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schlapbach, L., and Züttel, A. 2001: ‘Hydrogen-storage materials for mobile applications’, Nature 414, 353–358.
A journal article with 3 authors
Righton, D., Metcalfe, J., and Connolly, P. 2001: ‘Fisheries. Different behaviour of North and Irish Sea cod’, Nature 411, 156.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Noren, A. J., Bierman, P. R., Steig, E. J., Lini, A., and Southon, J. 2002: ‘Millennial-scale storminess variability in the northeastern United States during the Holocene epoch’, Nature 419, 821–824.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hunter, D. A. 2014: A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Montani, S., and Jain, L. C. (eds) 2010: Successful Case-Based Reasoning Applications - I, Vol. 305. Studies in Computational Intelligence, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Fischer, T., and Abrams, J. 2005: ‘Selected Projects’, in J. Abrams (ed.), Julie Snow Architects, New York, NY, 17–17.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Roman Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015: ‘Human DNA Gives Mice Bigger Brains Than Chimp DNA’, IFLScience. Available from <>. . Accessed30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1973: Narcotic Addiction Treatment and Rehabilitation Programs in New York City, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olanisa, E. L. 2012: ‘Mental health issues and use of health care services among older immigrant women in California’, Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. 2010: ‘The Place Is Rocking, and So Are the Knicks’, New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Roman Studies
AbbreviationJ. Rom. Stud.
ISSN (print)0075-4358
ISSN (online)1753-528X
Literature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts

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