How to format your references using the The Journal of Roman Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Roman Studies (JRS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rose, S. 2009: ‘Darwin 200: Should scientists study race and IQ? NO: Science and society do not benefit’, Nature 457, 786–788.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mitra, P. P., and Stark, J. B. 2001: ‘Nonlinear limits to the information capacity of optical fibre communications’, Nature 411, 1027–1030.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pál, C., Papp, B., and Hurst, L. D. 2003: ‘Genomic function: Rate of evolution and gene dispensability’, Nature 421, 496–7; discussion 497-8.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Himeno, M., Kitazawa, Y., Yoshida, T., Maejima, K., Yamaji, Y., Oshima, K., and Namba, S. 2014: ‘Purple top symptoms are associated with reduction of leaf cell death in phytoplasma-infected plants’, Scientific Reports 4, 4111.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barbosa, P., Berry, D. L., and Kary, C. S. 2014: Insect Histology, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Ting, I.-H., and Wu, H.-J. (eds) 2009: Web Mining Applications in E-Commerce and E-Services, Vol. 172. Studies in Computational Intelligence, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Divvala, S. K., Efros, A. A., and Hebert, M. 2012: ‘How Important Are “Deformable Parts” in the Deformable Parts Model?’, in A. Fusiello, V. Murino, and R. Cucchiara (eds), Computer Vision – ECCV 2012. Workshops and Demonstrations: Florence, Italy, October 7-13, 2012, Proceedings, Part III. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Berlin, Heidelberg, 31–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Roman Studies.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. 2016: ‘Quantum Property Of Vacuum Finally Observed Thanks To Neutron Star’, IFLScience. Available from <>. . Accessed30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1981: The Centralizing Effects of Austerity on the Intergovernmental System, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pierce, Z. D. 2016: ‘The relationship between nursing instructors’ transformational leadership behaviors in the clinical learning environment and associate degree nursing students’ communication apprehension’, Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. 2015: ‘Europe; Azerbaijan: Journalist Critical of Leader Is Sentenced to 7 1/2 Years in Prison’, New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Roman Studies
AbbreviationJ. Rom. Stud.
ISSN (print)0075-4358
ISSN (online)1753-528X
Literature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts

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