How to format your references using the The Journal of Roman Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Roman Studies (JRS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Deroy, O. 2015: ‘Eat insects for fun, not to help the environment’, Nature 521, 395.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karl, T. R., and Trenberth, K. E. 2003: ‘Modern global climate change’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 302, 1719–1723.
A journal article with 3 authors
Falenty, A., Hansen, T. C., and Kuhs, W. F. 2014: ‘Formation and properties of ice XVI obtained by emptying a type sII clathrate hydrate’, Nature 516, 231–233.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Itkis, M. E., Borondics, F., Yu, A., and Haddon, R. C. 2006: ‘Bolometric infrared photoresponse of suspended single-walled carbon nanotube films’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 312, 413–416.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DiMarzio, J. F. 2016: Beginning Android® Programming with Android Studio, Indianapolis, Indiana.
An edited book
Kroh, M., and Reavis, K. M. (eds) 2016: The SAGES Manual Operating Through the Endoscope, 1st ed. 2016., Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Vellonen, V., Kärnä, E., and Virnes, M. 2015: ‘Supporting the Strengths and Activity of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Technology-Enhanced Learning Environment’, in P. Isaías, J. M. Spector, D. Ifenthaler, and D. G. Sampson (eds), E-Learning Systems, Environments and Approaches: Theory and Implementation, Cham, 39–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Roman Studies.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2016: ‘Penguins Make Full Circumpolar Migration To Keep Population United’, IFLScience. Available from <>. . Accessed30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2016: China: U.S. Universities in China Emphasize Academic Freedom but Face Internet Censorship and Other Challenges, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De Anda, B. 2012: ‘Factors that contribute to the stigma of mental illness’, Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barnard, A. 2016: ‘Wary of Russian Guarantees, Residents Are Staying Put in Aleppo’, New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Roman Studies
AbbreviationJ. Rom. Stud.
ISSN (print)0075-4358
ISSN (online)1753-528X
Literature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts

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