How to format your references using the Journal of Chiropractic Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Covino S. Astronomy. A closer look at a gamma-ray burst. Science. 2007;315(5820):1798-1799.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Webb DJ, Suginohara N. Oceanography. Vertical mixing in the ocean. Nature. 2001;409(6816):37.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Huber D, Veinante P, Stoop R. Vasopressin and oxytocin excite distinct neuronal populations in the central amygdala. Science. 2005;308(5719):245-248.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Yagi H, Nakagawa N, Saito T, et al. AGO61-dependent GlcNAc modification primes the formation of functional glycans on α-dystroglycan. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3288.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Soprano A. Liquidity Management. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1.
Hartlep ND, Hensley BO, eds. Critical Storytelling in Uncritical Times: Stories Disclosed in a Cultural Foundations of Education Course. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Fisher KA, Raquet JF, Pachter M. Cooperative Estimation Algorithms Using TDOA Measurements. In: Grundel D, Murphey R, Pardalos P, Prokopyev O, eds. Cooperative Systems: Control and Optimization. Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007:57-66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Chiropractic Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. “I Just Can’t Get You Out Of My Head”: How To Eradicate Earworms. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/brain/i-just-can-t-get-you-out-my-head-how-eradicate-earworms/. Published May 19, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Highway Trust Fund: Administrative Expenses of the Federal Highway Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Landry C. A Phenomenological Investigation of the Factors that Influence Motivation, Recruitment and Retention of Volunteers Age 65 and Over. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Lee L. 10 Young Upstarts Strut Their Stuff in Miami. New York Times. November 24, 2011:D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Chiropractic Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Chiropr. Med.
ISSN (print)1556-3707
ScopeChiropractics

Other styles