How to format your references using the Journal of Chiropractic Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wickelgren I. HYPERTENSION: Mutation Points to Salt Recycling Pathway. Science. 2000;289(5476):23b-26b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gardner A, West SA. Ecology. Spite among siblings. Science. 2004;305(5689):1413-1414.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weisz C, Glowatzki E, Fuchs P. The postsynaptic function of type II cochlear afferents. Nature. 2009;461(7267):1126-1129.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Frazier ME, Johnson GM, Thomassen DG, Oliver CE, Patrinos A. Realizing the potential of the genome revolution: the genomes to life program. Science. 2003;300(5617):290-293.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boero R. Behavioral Computational Social Science. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Bacciotti F, Testi L, Whelan E, eds. Jets from Young Stars II: Clues from High Angular Resolution Observations. Vol 742. Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu Y, Hu Z, Matsuzaki K. Towards Systematic Parallel Programming over MapReduce. In: Jeannot E, Namyst R, Roman J, eds. Euro-Par 2011 Parallel Processing: 17th International Conference, Euro-Par 2011, Bordeaux, France, August 29 - September 2, 2011, Proceedings, Part II. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2011:39-50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Chiropractic Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. Toxic Moth Uses Click Sounds To Warn Bats Of Its Foul Taste. IFLScience. Published May 15, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Leveraging Best Practices and Reform Initiatives Can Help Agencies Better Manage Investments. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koh SA. A Comparison of Treatment Integrity Assessment Methods for Behavioral Intervention. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu L. If ‘Looking for Accuracy,’ C.B.O. Is Fine Place to Start. New York Times. March 9, 2017:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Chiropractic Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Chiropr. Med.
ISSN (print)1556-3707

Other styles