How to format your references using the Journal of Chiropractic Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gibson G. Human genetics. GTEx detects genetic effects. Science. 2015;348(6235):640-641.
A journal article with 2 authors
Katoh H, Negishi M. RhoG activates Rac1 by direct interaction with the Dock180-binding protein Elmo. Nature. 2003;424(6947):461-464.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pelli DG, Farell B, Moore DC. The remarkable inefficiency of word recognition. Nature. 2003;423(6941):752-756.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mayntz D, Raubenheimer D, Salomon M, Toft S, Simpson SJ. Nutrient-specific foraging in invertebrate predators. Science. 2005;307(5706):111-113.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minoli D. IP Multicast with Applications to IPTV and Mobile DVB-H. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Liu G, Yang C, Hao T, Luo X, eds. Oil and Gas Resources in China: A Roadmap to 2050. Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Fu Q, Wu Z, Ying X, Wang M, Zheng X, Zhou M. Generating Chinese Calligraphy on Freeform Shapes. In: Gavrilova ML, Tan CJK, Sourin A, eds. Transactions on Computational Science XXVIII: Special Issue on Cyberworlds and Cybersecurity. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2016:69-87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Chiropractic Medicine.

Blog post
Davis J. Conservationists to Engrave Every Critically Endangered Ploughshare Tortoise. IFLScience. Published June 25, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Rail Safety: Improved Human Capital Planning Could Address Emerging Safety Oversight Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hussmann S. Profiling Drilling Fluid Invasion in Sandstones Using Water Based Muds: Implications for Bridging and Wellbore Strengthening Effects. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. Watts Wins Manhattan Race. New York Times. June 24, 2002:D8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Chiropractic Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Chiropr. Med.
ISSN (print)1556-3707

Other styles