How to format your references using the Journal of Chiropractic Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Boosting biotech in Finland. Nature. 2004;431(7011):1020-1021.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ratnieks FLW, Carreck NL. Ecology. Clarity on honey bee collapse? Science. 2010;327(5962):152-153.
A journal article with 3 authors
Iwai M, Yokono M, Nakano A. Visualizing structural dynamics of thylakoid membranes. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3768.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lopez-Vaamonde C, Koning JW, Brown RM, Jordan WC, Bourke AFG. Social parasitism by male-producing reproductive workers in a eusocial insect. Nature. 2004;430(6999):557-560.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bécherrawy T. Electromagnetism. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Scherer P. Theoretical Molecular Biophysics. (Fischer SF, ed.). Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Lattimer B, Campbell T. Fire Modelling of Composites. In: Gibson AG, ed. Fire Properties of Polymer Composite Materials. Solid Mechanics and Its Applications. Springer Netherlands; 2006:103-132.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Chiropractic Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz S. Dramatic Battle Between Great White Sharks Caught On Camera. IFLScience. Published October 1, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Federal Communications Commission Spectrum Management. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mocilnikar GE. Playing with movies: An examination of the interactions between music and film in “Fantasie for horn and film.” Published online 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrman J. Level Up. New York Times. April 11, 2017:MM9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Chiropractic Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Chiropr. Med.
ISSN (print)1556-3707

Other styles