How to format your references using the Journal of Chiropractic Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tymoczko D. The geometry of musical chords. Science. 2006;313(5783):72-74.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cai W-J, Dai M. Comment on “Enhanced open ocean storage of CO2 from shelf sea pumping.” Science. 2004;306(5701):1477; author reply 1477.
A journal article with 3 authors
Harley HE, Putman EA, Roitblat HL. Bottlenose dolphins perceive object features through echolocation. Nature. 2003;424(6949):667-669.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Song I, Zuckerman B, Weinberger AJ, Becklin EE. Extreme collisions between planetesimals as the origin of warm dust around a Sun-like star. Nature. 2005;436(7049):363-365.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bisgaard S, Kulahci M. Time Series Analysis and Forecasting by Example: Bisgaard/Time Series by Example. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Dillon TS, Chang E, Meersman R, Sycara K, eds. Advances in Web Semantics I: Ontologies, Web Services and Applied Semantic Web. Vol 4891. Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Thompson MJ. Normative Humanism as Redemptive Critique. In: Miri SJ, Lake R, Kress TM, eds. Reclaiming the Sane Society: Essays on Erich Fromm’s Thought. SensePublishers; 2014:37-58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Chiropractic Medicine.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Baby Elephant Reunited With Mother Years After Being Kidnapped. IFLScience. Published April 8, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information and Technology Management: Responsibilities, Reporting Relationships, Tenure, and Challenges of Agency Chief Information Officers. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yu H. Parasitism of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae: Termitidae) by entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Steinernematidae: Heterorhabditidae). Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B. Bahrain Executes 3 Shiites Convicted in Deadly Bomb Attack on the Police. New York Times. January 15, 2017:A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Chiropractic Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Chiropr. Med.
ISSN (print)1556-3707

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