How to format your references using the Journal of Chiropractic Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reich ES. Whistleblowers at risk as science fails to correct itself. Nature. 2009;460(7258):949.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kubatko LS, Pearl DK. Evolution. Seeing the trees in your terrace. Science. 2011;333(6041):411-412.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lyons TW, Reinhard CT, Planavsky NJ. The rise of oxygen in Earth’s early ocean and atmosphere. Nature. 2014;506(7488):307-315.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hahn MW, Mezey JG, Begun DJ, et al. Evolutionary genomics: codon bias and selection on single genomes. Nature. 2005;433(7023):E5-6; discussion E7-8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mazer A. Shifting the Earth. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Caffrey M. Expert Oracle Practices: Oracle Database Administration from the Oak Table. (Finnigan P, Geist R, Gorbachev A, et al., eds.). Apress; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Peter-Koop A, Kollhoff S. Transition to School: Prior to School Mathematical Skills and Knowledge of Low-Achieving Children at the End of Grade 1. In: Perry B, MacDonald A, Gervasoni A, eds. Mathematics and Transition to School: International Perspectives. Early Mathematics Learning and Development. Springer; 2015:65-83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Chiropractic Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. What Happened To MH370? Prediction Markets Might Give Us The Answer. IFLScience. Published August 5, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Railroad Financing: Stakeholders’ Views on Recent Changes to the Railroad Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Diorio CA. The Silent Scream of Medusa: Restoring, or Re-Storying, Her Voice. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J. Grandmasters to Face Off in Tiebreaker. New York Times. November 28, 2016:B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Chiropractic Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Chiropr. Med.
ISSN (print)1556-3707

Other styles