How to format your references using the Journal of Chiropractic Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Kociak M. Microscopy: Quantum control of free electrons. Nature. 2015;521(7551):166-167.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Fugmann SD, Schatz DG. Immunology. One AID to unite them all. Science. 2002;295(5558):1244-1245.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Chuck AL, Turner SM, Liss PS. Direct evidence for a marine source of C1 and C2 alkyl nitrates. Science. 2002;297(5584):1151-1154.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Ritter C, Maddelein M-L, Siemer AB, et al. Correlation of structural elements and infectivity of the HET-s prion. Nature. 2005;435(7043):844-848.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Hetherington S. How to Know. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
1.
Zheng Q, ed. Introduction to E-Commerce. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Yon-Kahn J, Hervé G. Chemical Kinetics. In: Hervé G, ed. Molecular and Cellular Enzymology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010:85-101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Chiropractic Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Hamilton K. Beautiful Image of Piqiang Fault Lines Wins NASA Photo Tournament. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Uncertainties and Challenges Face FAA’s Advanced Automated System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Kopaygorodsky E. Mathematical Model of Ultra-Rapid PSA. 2001.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Brantley B. The Caged Beast Awakens. New York Times. April 1, 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Chiropractic Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Chiropr. Med.
ISSN (print)1556-3707
ScopeChiropractics

Other styles