How to format your references using the Earth System Dynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth System Dynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Berkley, S.: Make vaccine coverage a key UN health indicator, Nature, 526(7572), 165, 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sahin, E. and Depinho, R. A.: Linking functional decline of telomeres, mitochondria and stem cells during ageing, Nature, 464(7288), 520–528, 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gerber, L. R., Hyrenbach, K. D. and Zacharias, M. A.: Ecology. Do the largest protected areas conserve whales or whalers?, Science, 307(5709), 525–526, 2005.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Beghi, E., Bendotti, C., Mennini, T., Miller, T. and Cleveland, D.: Merits of a New Drug Trial for ALS?, Science, 308(5722), 632b–633b, 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wolf, E. L.: Nanophysics of Solar and Renewable Energy, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany., 2012.
An edited book
Schmidt, R. A., Ed.: Automated Deduction – CADE-22: 22nd International Conference on Automated Deduction, Montreal, Canada, August 2-7, 2009. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Kasahara, Y., Matsuyama, T. and Taguchi, A.: Treatment of Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells for Acute and Subacute Stroke, in Cell Therapy for Brain Injury, edited by D. C. Hess, pp. 37–46, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth System Dynamics.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Remind Me Again, How Does Cannabis Affect The Brain?, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Metropolitan Area Acquisition (MAA) Implementation Issues, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blankenship, K.: An Analysis of Illinois Public School Funding a Descriptive Comparison of Equity: 2005 v. 2015, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL., 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lehman, S.: What Storm? Getting the Paper Out, New York Times, 15th March, A2, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Berkley, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Berkley, 2015; Sahin and Depinho, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sahin and Depinho, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Beghi et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth System Dynamics
AbbreviationEarth Syst. Dyn.
ISSN (print)2190-4979
ISSN (online)2190-4987
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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