How to format your references using the Earth System Dynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth System Dynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laursen, L.: Interdisciplinary research: Big science at the table, Nature, 468, S2-4, 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilder-Smith, A. and Gubler, D. J.: PUBLIC HEALTH. Dengue vaccines at a crossroad, Science, 350, 626–627, 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Snyder, A., Pamer, E., and Wolchok, J.: IMMUNOTHERAPY. Could microbial therapy boost cancer immunotherapy?, Science, 350, 1031–1032, 2015.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Wu, H., van Kuyck, K., Tambuyzer, T., Luyten, L., Aerts, J.-M., and Nuttin, B.: Rethinking food anticipatory activity in the activity-based anorexia rat model, Sci. Rep., 4, 3929, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pozzilli, P., Lenzi, A., Clarke, B. L., and Young, W. F., Jr: Imaging in Endocrinology, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2013.
An edited book
Pham, T. D., Ichikawa, K., Oyama-Higa, M., Coomans, D., and Jiang, X. (Eds.): Biomedical Informatics and Technology: First International Conference, ACBIT 2013, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Japan, September 16-17, 2013. Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XII, 326 p. 191 illus pp., 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Özbal, G., Strapparava, C., Mihalcea, R., and Pighin, D.: A Comparison of Unsupervised Methods to Associate Colors with Words, in: Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Fourth International Conference, ACII 2011, Memphis, TN, USA, October 9–12, 2011, Proceedings, Part II, edited by: D’Mello, S., Graesser, A., Schuller, B., and Martin, J.-C., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 42–51, 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth System Dynamics.

Blog post
Invasive “Walking” Fish That Suffocates Its Predators May Be Coming For Australia:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Transportation Infrastructure: States’ Implementation of Transportation Management Systems, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cooper, J. B.: Examining the relationship between grade configuration and teachers’ perceptions of working conditions in public K–8 schools and middle schools in North Carolina, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Quain, J. R.: When a Sound System Can Mean Life or Death, New York Times, 10th November, B3, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Laursen, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Laursen, 2010; Wilder-Smith and Gubler, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilder-Smith and Gubler, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth System Dynamics
AbbreviationEarth Syst. Dyn.
ISSN (print)2190-4979
ISSN (online)2190-4987
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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