How to format your references using the Earth System Dynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth System Dynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brunham, R. C.: IMMUNOLOGY. A Chlamydia vaccine on the horizon, Science, 348, 1322–1323, 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levison, H. F. and Morbidelli, A.: The formation of the Kuiper belt by the outward transport of bodies during Neptune’s migration, Nature, 426, 419–421, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Parker, H. J., Bronner, M. E., and Krumlauf, R.: A Hox regulatory network of hindbrain segmentation is conserved to the base of vertebrates, Nature, 514, 490–493, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Li, D., Zhao, R., Lilyestrom, W., Gai, D., Zhang, R., DeCaprio, J. A., Fanning, E., Jochimiak, A., Szakonyi, G., and Chen, X. S.: Structure of the replicative helicase of the oncoprotein SV40 large tumour antigen, Nature, 423, 512–518, 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grose, M.: Construction Law in the United Arab Emirates and the Gulf, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
Gkoulalas-Divanis, A.: Anonymization of Electronic Medical Records to Support Clinical Analysis, edited by: Loukides, G., Springer, New York, NY, XV, 72 p. 23 illus pp., 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Martín, M. E., Sánchez, M. L., Muñoz-Losa, A., Fdez. Galván, I., and Aguilar, M. A.: Accelerating QM/MM Calculations by Using the Mean Field Approximation, in: Quantum Modeling of Complex Molecular Systems, edited by: Rivail, J.-L., Ruiz-Lopez, M., and Assfeld, X., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 135–152, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth System Dynamics.

Blog post
No, Enjoying A Gin And Tonic Doesn’t Mean You’re A Psychopath:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Space Transportation: Progress of the X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dashevsky-Kerdman, I.: The meeting of one hundred ways, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J.: When a Brooklyn Graveyard Can’t Expand Outward, It Looks Within, New York Times, 22nd June, A22, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brunham, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Brunham, 2015; Levison and Morbidelli, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Levison and Morbidelli, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth System Dynamics
AbbreviationEarth Syst. Dyn.
ISSN (print)2190-4979
ISSN (online)2190-4987
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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