How to format your references using the Earth System Dynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth System Dynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zaanen, J.: High-temperature superconductivity: electron mirages in an iron salt, Nature, 515(7526), 205–206, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson, R. I. and Nicoll, R. A.: Endogenous cannabinoids mediate retrograde signalling at hippocampal synapses, Nature, 410(6828), 588–592, 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spurný, P., Oberst, J. and Heinlein, D.: Photographic observations of Neuschwanstein, a second meteorite from the orbit of the Príbram chondrite, Nature, 423(6936), 151–153, 2003.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Kapp, F. G., Perlin, J. R., Hagedorn, E. J., Gansner, J. M., Schwarz, D. E., O’Connell, L. A., Johnson, N. S., Amemiya, C., Fisher, D. E., Wölfle, U., Trompouki, E., Niemeyer, C. M., Driever, W. and Zon, L. I.: Protection from UV light is an evolutionarily conserved feature of the haematopoietic niche, Nature, 558(7710), 445–448, 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sanders, S.: Seizures in Dogs and Cats, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ., 2015.
An edited book
Chiu, M.-H., Gilmer, P. J. and Treagust, D. F., Eds.: Celebrating the 100th Anniversary of Madame Marie Sklodowska Curie’s Nobel Prize in Chemistry, SensePublishers, Rotterdam., 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Gong, Z., Lin, Y. and Yao, T.: Complementary Preference Relations of Triangular Fuzzy Numbers, in Uncertain Fuzzy Preference Relations and Their Applications, edited by Y. Lin and T. Yao, pp. 45–74, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth System Dynamics.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: How New Hepatitis C Drugs Could Tackle Liver Cancer, Too, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: NASA: Assessments of Selected Large-Scale Projects, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Henderson, M. M.: Coming to Terms: Career Development Experiences of NCAA Division I Female Student-Athletes in Transition, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC., 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belson, K., Medina, J. and Pérez-Peña, R.: Sniper Inflicts ‘Total Chaos’ in Las Vegas; Police Seek a Motive as Death Toll Hits 59, New York Times, 2nd October, A1, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zaanen, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Wilson and Nicoll, 2001; Zaanen, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilson and Nicoll, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Kapp et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth System Dynamics
AbbreviationEarth Syst. Dyn.
ISSN (print)2190-4979
ISSN (online)2190-4987
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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