How to format your references using the Earth System Dynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth System Dynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pennisi, E.: Primate evolution. Gene activity clocks brain’s fast evolution, Science, 296, 233–235, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
England, P. C. and Katz, R. F.: Global systematics of arc volcano position, Nature, 468, E6-7; discussion E7-8, 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
Knill, E., Laflamme, R., and Milburn, G. J.: A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics, Nature, 409, 46–52, 2001.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Thomas, G. A., Shraiman, B. I., Glodis, P. F., and Stephens, M. J.: Towards the clarity limit in optical fibre, Nature, 404, 262–264, 2000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Arendt, J. S. and Lorenzo, D. K.: Evaluating Process Safety in the Chemical Industry, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2000.
An edited book
Kleinman, K.: Mies van der Rohe The Krefeld Villas, edited by: Duzer, L. V., Princeton Archit. Press, New York, NY, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Penumetcha, K., Jerjes, W., Patel, N., and Upile, T.: ENT Emergencies, in: Surgical Emergencies in Clinical Practice, edited by: Shergill, I., Arya, M., Upile, T., Arya, N., and Dasgupta, P., Springer, London, 73–98, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth System Dynamics.

Blog post
Lifelong Protection From Severe Allergies Could Be Possible With New Treatment:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federal Assistance Provided to Institutions of Higher Education, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chlarson-Varner, G.: Falls among older adults 65 years and older, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S.: Russia: 2 Arrested After Band’s Protest At Moscow Cathedral to Remain Jailed, New York Times, 15th March, A10, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pennisi, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Pennisi, 2002; England and Katz, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (England and Katz, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Thomas et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth System Dynamics
AbbreviationEarth Syst. Dyn.
ISSN (print)2190-4979
ISSN (online)2190-4987
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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