How to format your references using the Journal of Mechanical Design citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Mechanical Design. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spurgeon, D., 2003, “Canada Boosts Spending on Science,” Nature, 421(6926), p. 880.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, J.-W., and Helmann, J. D., 2006, “The PerR Transcription Factor Senses H2O2 by Metal-Catalysed Histidine Oxidation,” Nature, 440(7082), pp. 363–367.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mongillo, G., Barak, O., and Tsodyks, M., 2008, “Synaptic Theory of Working Memory,” Science, 319(5869), pp. 1543–1546.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Curé, C., Antunes, R., Alves, A. C., Visser, F., Kvadsheim, P. H., and Miller, P. J. O., 2013, “Responses of Male Sperm Whales (Physeter Macrocephalus) to Killer Whale Sounds: Implications for Anti-Predator Strategies,” Sci. Rep., 3, p. 1579.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Joglekar, A. M., 2010, Industrial Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Pan, J.-S., Chen, S.-M., and Nguyen, N. T., eds., 2010, Computational Collective Intelligence. Technologies and Applications: Second International Conference, ICCCI 2010, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, November 10-12, 2010. Proceedings, Part III, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Redline, R. W., 2007, “Placental Inflammation,” Fetal and Neonatal Pathology, J.W. Keeling, and T.Y. Khong, eds., Springer, London, pp. 90–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Mechanical Design.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2015, “Scientists Pinpoint Neurons In The Brain That Regulate Thirst,” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992, Toward the Moon, Asteroids, and Mars, 146025, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Courtney, S. J., 2015, “A Sea of Voices: An Alchemical Journey Through Dissociation,” Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010, “When Goodell Learned That Life Is No Game,” New York Times, p. SP5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Mechanical Design
AbbreviationJ. Mech. Des. N. Y.
ISSN (print)1050-0472
ISSN (online)1528-9001
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Science Applications
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

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