How to format your references using the Journal of Mechanical Design citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Mechanical Design. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell, K., 2004, “The Yeast Is Rising,” Nature, 429(6988), pp. 224–225.
A journal article with 2 authors
Joseph, S. B., and Swanstrom, R., 2014, “HIV/AIDS. A Fitness Bottleneck in HIV-1 Transmission,” Science, 345(6193), pp. 136–137.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gullison, R. E., Rice, R. E., and Blundell, A. G., 2000, “‘Marketing’ Species Conservation,” Nature, 404(6781), pp. 923–924.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lim, L. P., Glasner, M. E., Yekta, S., Burge, C. B., and Bartel, D. P., 2003, “Vertebrate MicroRNA Genes,” Science, 299(5612), p. 1540.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fayngold, M., 2005, Special Relativity and Motions Faster than Light, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Jeannin, J.-F., ed., 2010, Lipid A in Cancer Therapy, Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Duarte, E., 2012, “Plato’s ‘Allegory of the Cave,’” Being and Learning: A Poetic Phenomenology of Education, E.M. Duarte, ed., SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp. 69–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Mechanical Design.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2014, “Peacock Spider Dances To YMCA,” IFLScience [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008, Aviation and the Environment: Initial Voluntary Airport Low Emissions Program Projects Reduce Emissions, and FAA Plans to Assess the Program’s Overall Performance as Participation Increases, GAO-09-37, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brister, M. H., 2008, “Attitudes of Agriscience Teachers, Counselors, Administrators, and Students toward Selected Agriscience Programs in Mississippi,” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M., 2017, “47 Years Later, a Murder Victim Defined by Aliases Has a Name,” New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Mechanical Design
AbbreviationJ. Mech. Des. N. Y.
ISSN (print)1050-0472
ISSN (online)1528-9001
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Science Applications
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

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