How to format your references using the Journal of Mechanical Design citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Mechanical Design. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Begun, D. R., 2004, “Anthropology. The Earliest Hominins--Is Less More?,” Science, 303(5663), pp. 1478–1480.
A journal article with 2 authors
Iwamoto, H., and Yagi, N., 2013, “The Molecular Trigger for High-Speed Wing Beats in a Bee,” Science, 341(6151), pp. 1243–1246.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bowman, G. D., O’Donnell, M., and Kuriyan, J., 2004, “Structural Analysis of a Eukaryotic Sliding DNA Clamp-Clamp Loader Complex,” Nature, 429(6993), pp. 724–730.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hui, Y. Y., Su, L.-J., Chen, O. Y., Chen, Y.-T., Liu, T.-M., and Chang, H.-C., 2014, “Wide-Field Imaging and Flow Cytometric Analysis of Cancer Cells in Blood by Fluorescent Nanodiamond Labeling and Time Gating,” Sci. Rep., 4, p. 5574.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaltashov, I. A., and Eyles, S. J., 2005, Mass Spectrometry in Biophysics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gao, C., ed., 2016, Polymeric Biomaterials for Tissue Regeneration: From Surface/Interface Design to 3D Constructs, Springer, Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Baseler, W. A., Croston, T. L., and Hollander, J. M., 2012, “Functional Characteristics of Mortalin,” Mortalin Biology: Life, Stress and Death, S.C. Kaul, and R. Wadhwa, eds., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 55–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Mechanical Design.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014, “Replacing The Moon With Other Planets,” IFLScience [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003, Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes, GAO-03-360R, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
George, K. G., 2017, “Revisiting ‘The Blue Line Blues’: Transit-Oriented Development in Inner-City Areas of Los Angeles County, 2000-2016,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., 2017, “Hounds of Love,” New York Times, p. C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Mechanical Design
AbbreviationJ. Mech. Des. N. Y.
ISSN (print)1050-0472
ISSN (online)1528-9001
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Science Applications
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

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