How to format your references using the Journal of Mechanical Design citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Mechanical Design. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q., 2008, “Catalonian Powerhouse,” Nature, 454(7201), pp. 248–249.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nakar, E., and Piran, T., 2011, “Detectable Radio Flares Following Gravitational Waves from Mergers of Binary Neutron Stars,” Nature, 478(7367), pp. 82–84.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, J., Hannon, G. J., and Beach, D. H., 2000, “Risky Immortalization by Telomerase,” Nature, 405(6788), pp. 755–756.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chan, H. F., Zhang, Y., Ho, Y.-P., Chiu, Y.-L., Jung, Y., and Leong, K. W., 2013, “Rapid Formation of Multicellular Spheroids in Double-Emulsion Droplets with Controllable Microenvironment,” Sci. Rep., 3, p. 3462.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Braha, A., and Groza, G., 2006, Moderne Abwassertechnik, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Djokić, S., ed., 2016, Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications of Electrochemistry, Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Calcavecchia, N. M., Ardagna, D., and Di Nitto, E., 2010, “The Emergence of Load Balancing in Distributed Systems: The SelfLet Approach,” Run-Time Models for Self-Managing Systems and Applications, D. Ardagna, and L. Zhang, eds., Springer, Basel, pp. 97–124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Mechanical Design.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2017, “Why Losing A Dog Can Be Harder Than Losing A Relative Or Friend,” IFLScience [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988, ADP Planning: Allegations of Inadequate Procurements at the National Archives, IMTEC-88-34, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jones, E., 2019, “Leadership Practices in K-12 Public Schools for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students: A Qualitative Study,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., 2017, “In Comeback From Injury, Stephens Falls Short Against Another American,” New York Times, p. B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Mechanical Design
AbbreviationJ. Mech. Des. N. Y.
ISSN (print)1050-0472
ISSN (online)1528-9001
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Science Applications
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

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