How to format your references using the Journal of Mechanical Design citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Mechanical Design. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lemaire, P., 2006, “Developmental Biology. How Many Ways to Make a Chordate?,” Science, 312(5777), pp. 1145–1146.
A journal article with 2 authors
Doma, M. K., and Parker, R., 2006, “Endonucleolytic Cleavage of Eukaryotic MRNAs with Stalls in Translation Elongation,” Nature, 440(7083), pp. 561–564.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maskus, K. E., Mobarak, A. M., and Stuen, E. T., 2013, “Economics. Doctoral Students and U.S. Immigration Policy,” Science, 342(6158), pp. 562–563.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Graham, D. W., Lupton, J. E., Spera, F. J., and Christie, D. M., 2001, “Upper-Mantle Dynamics Revealed by Helium Isotope Variations along the Southeast Indian Ridge,” Nature, 409(6821), pp. 701–703.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Church, R. L., and Murray, A. T., 2008, Business Site Selection, Location Analysis and GIS, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Pandi-Perumal, S. R., Cardinali, D. P., and Chrousos, G. P., eds., 2007, Neuroimmunology of Sleep, Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Sommer, R. J., and Spencer, B. T., 2015, “Aging and Patent Foramen Ovale,” Patent Foramen Ovale, Z. Amin, J.M. Tobis, H. Sievert, and J.D. Carroll, eds., Springer, London, pp. 25–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Mechanical Design.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015, “First Ever Dinosaur Fossil Found In Washington State,” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003, Commercial Aviation: Issues Regarding Federal Assistance for Enhancing Air Service to Small Communities, GAO-03-540T, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen, S. A., 2014, “Dispersed Social Work: Understanding Social Presence and Organizational Identification Through the Use of New Communication Technologies,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2002, “Some Want a Cultural Hub; Others See a Center on Steroids,” New York Times, p. 147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Mechanical Design
AbbreviationJ. Mech. Des. N. Y.
ISSN (print)1050-0472
ISSN (online)1528-9001
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Science Applications
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

Other styles