How to format your references using the Journal of Mechanical Design citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Mechanical Design. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sadler, J. E., 2002, “Biomedicine. Contact--How Platelets Touch von Willebrand Factor,” Science, 297(5584), pp. 1128–1129.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, C., and Thompson, C. B., 2002, “Cancer. DNA Damage, Deamidation, and Death,” Science, 298(5597), pp. 1346–1347.
A journal article with 3 authors
Boyle, W. J., Simonet, W. S., and Lacey, D. L., 2003, “Osteoclast Differentiation and Activation,” Nature, 423(6937), pp. 337–342.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Likhtik, E., Popa, D., Apergis-Schoute, J., Fidacaro, G. A., and Paré, D., 2008, “Amygdala Intercalated Neurons Are Required for Expression of Fear Extinction,” Nature, 454(7204), pp. 642–645.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, 2010, Guidelines for Acquisition Evaluation and Post Merger Integration, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kazantzis, N., and LĽAbate, L., eds., 2007, Handbook of Homework Assignments in Psychotherapy: Research, Practice, and Prevention, Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Fulda, A., 2016, “The Logic and Limits of the Party’s Social Management Approach in Maintaining Stability: Lessons from Bismarck,” China in the Xi Jinping Era, S. Tsang, and H. Men, eds., Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 71–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Mechanical Design.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016, “Nearly A Third Of All Seafood Is Mislabeled, But This Could Be Good For Sustainability,” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004, Information Technology: Major Federal Networks That Support Homeland Security Functions, GAO-04-375, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sitterding, M. C., 2014, “Situation Awareness and the Selection of Interruption Handling Strategies during the Medication Administration Process: A Qualitative Study,” Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robles, F., Alvarez, L., and Yee, V., 2017, “Entire State Shudders as Hurricane Irma Roars Into Florida,” New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Mechanical Design
AbbreviationJ. Mech. Des. N. Y.
ISSN (print)1050-0472
ISSN (online)1528-9001
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Science Applications
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

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