How to format your references using the Habitat International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Habitat International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
VanNimwegen, R. (2007). Award-winning commitment. Nature, 447(7144), 610.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dawkins, M. S., & Woodington, A. (2000). Pattern recognition and active vision in chickens. Nature, 403(6770), 652–655.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, G.-W., Oh, E., & Weissman, J. S. (2012). The anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence drives translational pausing and codon choice in bacteria. Nature, 484(7395), 538–541.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
de Ruiter, P. C., Wolters, V., Moore, J. C., & Winemiller, K. O. (2005). Ecology. Food web ecology: playing Jenga and beyond. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5731), 68–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. (2015). Guidelines for Initiating Events and Independent Protection Layers in Layer of Protection Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dekhtyar, Y., Katashev, A., & Lancere, L. (Eds.). (2013). International Symposium on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics, 10-12 October, 2012, Riga, Latvia (Vol. 38). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Carsrud, A. L., & Brännback, M. (2012). Case Two: Gazi Family Constitution – Managing the Family in a Family Firm. In M. Brännback (Ed.), Family Firms in Transition: Case Studies on Succession, Inheritance, and Governance (pp. 15–24). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Habitat International.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, February 6). Some Whale Strandings Might Be Caused By Solar Storms. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1979). Cost/Benefit Analysis--A Legislative Branch Viewpoint (No. 110842). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bailey, R. U. (2015). A Risk Analysis Tool for Evaluating ROI of TRA for Major Defense Acquisition Programs [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Casey, N. (2016, October 7). Colombia’s Leader Is Awarded Nobel Peace Prize for Work to End 52-Year War. New York Times, A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (VanNimwegen, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Dawkins & Woodington, 2000; VanNimwegen, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dawkins & Woodington, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Li et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (de Ruiter et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleHabitat International
AbbreviationHabitat Int.
ISSN (print)0197-3975
ScopeUrban Studies

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