How to format your references using the Habitat International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Habitat International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roelfsema, P. R. (2011). Neuroscience. Attention--voluntary control of brain cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6037), 1512–1513.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lum, L., & Beachy, P. A. (2004). The Hedgehog response network: sensors, switches, and routers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5678), 1755–1759.
A journal article with 3 authors
Al-Zaid, F. S., Alhader, A. A., & Al-Ayadhi, L. Y. (2014). Altered ghrelin levels in boys with autism: a novel finding associated with hormonal dysregulation. Scientific Reports, 4, 6478.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sharma, V., Crne, M., Park, J. O., & Srinivasarao, M. (2009). Structural origin of circularly polarized iridescence in jeweled beetles. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5939), 449–451.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harris, C. (2006). Electricity Markets. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Das, K. N., Deep, K., Pant, M., Bansal, J. C., & Nagar, A. (Eds.). (2015). Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving: SocProS 2014, Volume 2 (Vol. 336). Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Ham, M., & Agha, G. (2008). A Study of Coordinated Dynamic Market-Based Task Assignment in Massively Multi-Agent Systems. In N. Jamali, P. Scerri, & T. Sugawara (Eds.), Massively Multi-Agent Technology: AAMAS Workshops, MMAS 2006, LSMAS 2006, and CCMMS 2007 Hakodate, Japan, May 9, 2006 Honolulu, HI, USA, May 15, 2007 Selected and Revised Papers (pp. 43–63). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Habitat International.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, September 17). Decriminalise Use Of Medical Marijuana And Legalise Small-Scale Cultivation. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2013). Intelligent Transportation Systems: Vehicle-to-Vehicle Technologies Expected to Offer Safety Benefits, but a Variety of Deployment Challenges Exist (GAO-14-13). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, E. (2017). Assessing the Well-Being Koreans and Korean Americans: Psychometric Validation Study for a Multidimensional Assessment of Well-Being [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2002, September 13). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Archbishop Appeals To Rights Groups. New York Times, A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Roelfsema, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Lum & Beachy, 2004; Roelfsema, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lum & Beachy, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Al-Zaid et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sharma et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleHabitat International
AbbreviationHabitat Int.
ISSN (print)0197-3975
ScopeUrban Studies

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