How to format your references using the Habitat International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Habitat International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seager, S. (2013). Exoplanet habitability. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6132), 577–581.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vaupel, J. W., & Loichinger, E. (2006). Redistributing work in aging Europe. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5782), 1911–1913.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo, Y., White, L., & Hui, D. (2004). Comment on “Impacts of fine root turnover on forest NPP and soil C sequestration potential.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5678), 1745; author reply 1745.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jenkyns, H. C., Forster, A., Schouten, S., & Sinninghe Damsté, J. S. (2004). High temperatures in the Late Cretaceous Arctic Ocean. Nature, 432(7019), 888–892.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mastro, P. F. (2016). Plastics Product Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hartmann, S., & Ma, H. (Eds.). (2016). Database and Expert Systems Applications: 27th International Conference, DEXA 2016, Porto, Portugal, September 5-8, 2016, Proceedings, Part II (Vol. 9828). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Boulier, F., Chen, C., Lemaire, F., & Moreno Maza, M. (2014). Real Root Isolation of Regular Chains. In R. Feng, W.-S. Lee, & Y. Sato (Eds.), Computer Mathematics: 9th Asian Symposium (ASCM2009), Fukuoka, December 2009, 10th Asian Symposium (ASCM2012), Beijing, October 2012, Contributed Papers and Invited Talks (pp. 33–48). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Habitat International.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, May 20). Venus Express Prepares for its Summer Plunge. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Communications: Actions Needed to Ensure Advanced High Frequency Radios Interoperate (No. NSIAD-89-84). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramirez, E. Y. (2015). Barriers to access to health care among Latino immigrants in the United States: A quantitative study (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2010, January 27). David Sarkisyan, 62, Moscow Preservationist. New York Times, p. A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seager, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Seager, 2013; Vaupel & Loichinger, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vaupel & Loichinger, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Luo, White, & Hui, 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Jenkyns, Forster, Schouten, & Sinninghe Damsté, 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleHabitat International
AbbreviationHabitat Int.
ISSN (print)0197-3975
ScopeUrban Studies

Other styles