How to format your references using the Habitat International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Habitat International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Elvis, M. (2012). Let’s mine asteroids--for science and profit. Nature, 485(7400), 549.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lavallo, V., & Grubbs, R. H. (2009). Carbenes as catalysts for transformations of organometallic iron complexes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5952), 559–562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith, D. R., Pendry, J. B., & Wiltshire, M. C. K. (2004). Metamaterials and negative refractive index. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5685), 788–792.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
He, W. W., Wu, K. J., Wang, K., Shi, T. F., Wu, L., Li, S. X., Teng, D. Y., & Ye, C. H. (2014). Towards stable silicon nanoarray hybrid solar cells. Scientific Reports, 4, 3715.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Khan, M. M., & Islam, M. R. (2016). Zero Waste Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kyriacou, E., Christofides, S., & Pattichis, C. S. (Eds.). (2016). XIV Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 2016: MEDICON 2016, March 31st-April 2nd 2016, Paphos, Cyprus (Vol. 57). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Boothby, B. (2015). Autonomous Attack—Opportunity or Spectre? In T. D. Gill, R. Geiß, R. Heinsch, T. McCormack, C. Paulussen, & J. Dorsey (Eds.), Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law 2013 (pp. 71–88). T.M.C. Asser Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Habitat International.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, November 18). The Arctic Is Currently An Astonishing THIRTY SIX DEGREES Warmer Than It Should Be. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Space Transportation: NASA Has No Firm Need for Increasingly Costly Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (NSIAD-90-192). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mendoza-Williams, J. (2015). Road to success: The experiences of academically successful graduation-bound African American males [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D. (2017, May 23). An Attack Changes the Conversation as the President Travels On to Europe. New York Times, A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Elvis, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Elvis, 2012; Lavallo & Grubbs, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lavallo & Grubbs, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Smith et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (He et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleHabitat International
AbbreviationHabitat Int.
ISSN (print)0197-3975
ScopeUrban Studies

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