How to format your references using the Habitat International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Habitat International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knight, J. (2001). Physical sciences lose ground as US shifts towards biology. Nature, 412(6844), 259.
A journal article with 2 authors
Beatty, P. H., & Good, A. G. (2011). Plant science. Future prospects for cereals that fix nitrogen. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6041), 416–417.
A journal article with 3 authors
Olff, H., Ritchie, M. E., & Prins, H. H. T. (2002). Global environmental controls of diversity in large herbivores. Nature, 415(6874), 901–904.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhai, R. G., Zhang, F., Hiesinger, P. R., Cao, Y., Haueter, C. M., & Bellen, H. J. (2008). NAD synthase NMNAT acts as a chaperone to protect against neurodegeneration. Nature, 452(7189), 887–891.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bell, S. (2005). Lean Enterprise Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Freudenthal, G., & McLaughlin, P. (Eds.). (2009). The Social and Economic Roots of the Scientific Revolution: Texts by Boris Hessen and Henryk Grossmann (1st ed., Vol. 278). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Boţ, R. I., Grad, S.-M., & Wanka, G. (2009). Conjugate vector duality via scalarization. In S.-M. Grad & G. Wanka (Eds.), Duality in Vector Optimization (pp. 123–180). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Habitat International.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, January 23). American Farmers May Be Directly Feeding Cows Skittles In Odd Conspiracy. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Job Training Partnership Act: Services and Outcomes for Participants With Differing Needs (HRD-89-52). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ware, S. C. (2014). Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk in older women: A modifiable lifestyle risk factor [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goodman, P. S., & Kanter, J. (2016, October 21). Globalization Grinds to a Halt. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knight, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Beatty & Good, 2011; Knight, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Beatty & Good, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Olff et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhai et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleHabitat International
AbbreviationHabitat Int.
ISSN (print)0197-3975
ScopeUrban Studies

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