How to format your references using the The Journal of Nuclear Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Nuclear Medicine (JNM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Both C. Comment on “Rapid advance of spring arrival dates in long-distance migratory birds.” Science. 2007;315:598; author reply 598.
A journal article with 2 authors
Borgani S, Guzzo L. X-ray clusters of galaxies as tracers of structure in the Universe. Nature. 2001;409:39-45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gray RD, Drummond AJ, Greenhill SJ. Language phylogenies reveal expansion pulses and pauses in Pacific settlement. Science. 2009;323:479-483.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li J, Li X, Zhai H-J, Wang L-S. Au20: a tetrahedral cluster. Science. 2003;299:864-867.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paschedag AR. CFD in der Verfahrenstechnik. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2004.
An edited book
Gardner-Bonneau D. Human Factors and Voice Interactive Systems. Second Edition. (Blanchard HE, ed.). Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Burg MM. Stress psicologico e ischemia. In: Parati G, Compare A, eds. Mente e Cuore: Clinica Psicologica Della Malattia Cardiaca. Milano: Springer; 2007:77-90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. Earliest Fossil Traces of Life Questioned. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. U.S. Airports: Selected Airports’ Views on Federal Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Borogovac A. Novel method for superior detection of functional changes in CBF using arterial spin labeling fMRI. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. In Showdown, Sure Hands And Shaky Ones. New York Times. June 13, 2010:SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Nuclear Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Nucl. Med.
ISSN (print)0161-5505
ISSN (online)1535-5667
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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