How to format your references using the The Journal of Nuclear Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Nuclear Medicine (JNM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harris H. Tumour suppression: putting on the brakes. Nature. 2004;427:201.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sharma P, Allison JP. Retrospective. Lloyd J. Old (1933-2011). Science. 2012;335:49.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moon-van der Staay SY, De Wachter R, Vaulot D. Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from picoplankton reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity. Nature. 2001;409:607-610.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Maeda K, Teramura K, Lu D, et al. Photocatalyst releasing hydrogen from water. Nature. 2006;440:295.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mashadi B, Crolla D. Vehicle Powertrain Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Roach HI, Bronner F, Oreffo ROC, eds. Epigenetic Aspects of Chronic Diseases. London: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Danelli F. Implementing Game Design in Gamification. In: Reiners T, Wood LC, eds. Gamification in Education and Business. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:67-79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.

Blog post
Evans K. First Pan-African Elephant Census Reveals Dramatic Decline Due To Poaching. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. College Textbooks: Enhanced Offerings Appear to Drive Recent Price Increases. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grefe SE. Plasmonic and topological insulator nanostructures and metamaterials nanoscale near-field investigations: Experiment and theory. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY J. New York State to Cover Tuition in Cuomo Plan. New York Times. January 3, 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (1)
  • Three authors: (1)
  • Four or more authors: (1)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Nuclear Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Nucl. Med.
ISSN (print)0161-5505
ISSN (online)1535-5667
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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