How to format your references using the The Journal of Nuclear Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Nuclear Medicine (JNM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldemberg J. Ethanol for a sustainable energy future. Science. 2007;315:808-810.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levitas VI, Attariani H. Anisotropic compositional expansion and chemical potential for amorphous lithiated silicon under stress tensor. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1615.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fuller PM, Lu J, Saper CB. Differential rescue of light- and food-entrainable circadian rhythms. Science. 2008;320:1074-1077.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nam M-S, Ardavan A, Blundell SJ, Schlueter JA. Fluctuating superconductivity in organic molecular metals close to the Mott transition. Nature. 2007;449:584-587.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Del Pico WJ. Electrical Estimating Methods. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Peleg M, Lavrač N, Combi C, eds. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine: 13th Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, AIME 2011, Bled, Slovenia, July 2-6, 2011. Proceedings. Vol 6747. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Chakraborty J, Bligh PL. Evaluation of Video Game Interfaces. In: Stephanidis C, ed. Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Design for All and EInclusion: 6th International Conference, UAHCI 2011, Held as Part of HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011, Proceedings, Part I. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011:30-35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Are Some Species Just Too Wild For A Happy Life In Captivity? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Bilingual Education: An Unmet Need. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zakharov D. The discrete Dirac operator and the discrete generalized Weierstrass representation in pseudo-Euclidean spaces. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD. In Trump’s Silence, Pence Takes a Swipe at Russia. New York Times. August 1, 2017:A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Nuclear Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Nucl. Med.
ISSN (print)0161-5505
ISSN (online)1535-5667
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles