How to format your references using the Molecular Astrophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Astrophysics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lloyd, S., 2004. Going into reverse. Nature 430, 971.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, X., Chen, X.J., 2015. A cytosolic network suppressing mitochondria-mediated proteostatic stress and cell death. Nature 524, 481–484.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kasuya, A., Sakabe, J.-I., Tokura, Y., 2014. Potential application of in vivo imaging of impaired lymphatic duct to evaluate the severity of pressure ulcer in mouse model. Sci. Rep. 4, 4173.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Le Goff, A., Artero, V., Jousselme, B., Tran, P.D., Guillet, N., Métayé, R., Fihri, A., Palacin, S., Fontecave, M., 2009. From hydrogenases to noble metal-free catalytic nanomaterials for H2 production and uptake. Science 326, 1384–1387.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wood, T., Anderson, M., Analytics, F., 2010. The Commercial Real Estate Tsunami. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Luderer, B., 2010. Mathematical Formulas for Economists. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Thotahewa, K.M.S., Redouté, J.-M., Yuce, M.R., 2014. An Ultra-Wideband Sensor Node Development with Dual-Frequency Band for Medical Signal Monitoring, in: Redouté, J.-M., Yuce, M.R. (Eds.), Ultra Wideband Wireless Body Area Networks. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 83–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Astrophysics.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2017. Dwarf Galaxies Around The Milky Way Agree With Dark Matter Model [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. Promising Practice: Private Programs Guaranteeing Student Aid for Higher Education (No. PEMD-90-16). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pikiewicz, K.A., 2012. I never knew I had expectations until I realized they weren’t going to come true: A grounded theory study of mothering a chronically ill child (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Seelye, K.Q., Blinder, A., Bidgood, J., 2017. Counterprotesters Surge Into Boston, Overshadowing a Planned Rally. New York Times A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lloyd, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Lloyd, 2004; Wang and Chen, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Chen, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Le Goff et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Astrophysics
ISSN (print)2405-6758

Other styles