How to format your references using the Molecular Astrophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Astrophysics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Margolis, H.S., 2013. Physics. How big is the proton? Science 339, 405–406.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ong, N.P., Cava, R.J., 2004. Physics. Electronic frustration on a triangular lattice. Science 305, 52–53.
A journal article with 3 authors
Killgore, W.D.S., Olson, E.A., Weber, M., 2013. Physical exercise habits correlate with gray matter volume of the hippocampus in healthy adult humans. Sci. Rep. 3, 3457.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lu, C., Hu, X., Yang, H., Gong, Q., 2014. Chip-integrated ultrawide-band all-optical logic comparator in plasmonic circuits. Sci. Rep. 4, 3869.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rao, K.R., Bojkovic, Z.S., Milovanovic, D.A., 2005. Introduction to Multimedia Communications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gros, B., Kinshuk, Maina, M. (Eds.), 2016. The Future of Ubiquitous Learning: Learning Designs for Emerging Pedagogies, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Lecture Notes in Educational Technology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Arshad, S., 2016. The Relationship Between Islamic Stock Markets and Business Cycles: A Regional Perspective, in: Alam, N., Rizvi, S.A.R. (Eds.), Islamic Capital Markets: Volatility, Performance and Stability. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 45–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Astrophysics.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Deepsea Graveyard is Fish Food Bonanza [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. Highway Trust Fund: Options for Improving Sustainability and Mechanisms to Manage Solvency (No. GAO-09-845T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McClurg, A.D., 2013. A phenomenological study of Baby Boomer retirement— Expectations, results, and implications (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., 2017. Murray Pounces After del Potro’s First-Set Stumble. New York Times SP6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Margolis, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Margolis, 2013; Ong and Cava, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ong and Cava, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Lu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Astrophysics
ISSN (print)2405-6758

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