How to format your references using the Earth and Space Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth and Space Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kauer, J. S. (2002). On the scents of smell in the salamander. Nature, 417(6886), 336–342.
A journal article with 2 authors
Crone, T. J., & Tolstoy, M. (2010). Magnitude of the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil leak. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6004), 634.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oka, Y., Ye, M., & Zuker, C. S. (2015). Thirst driving and suppressing signals encoded by distinct neural populations in the brain. Nature, 520(7547), 349–352.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Moon, C. R., Mattos, L. S., Foster, B. K., Zeltzer, G., Ko, W., & Manoharan, H. C. (2008). Quantum phase extraction in isospectral electronic nanostructures. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5864), 782–787.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Homès, B. (2012). Fundamentals of Software Testing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ceccatelli, S., & Aschner, M. (Eds.). (2012). Methylmercury and Neurotoxicity (Vol. 2). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Tavernier, F., & Steyaert, M. (2011). From current to voltage—The transimpedance amplifier. In M. Steyaert (Ed.), High-Speed Optical Receivers with Integrated Photodiode in Nanoscale CMOS (pp. 77–135). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth and Space Science.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, April 16). Off-Kilter Planets Could Host Life. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Fiscal Year 2010 Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes (No. GAO-11-121R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chima-Okereke, O. (2010). The distinct VPS35 mutant, env1, exhibits unique protein mislocalization and processing phenotype (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
LISA W. FODERARO; Reporting for this article was contributed by Ford Fessenden, as well as by Kathleen McGrory in Westchester, Akhtar, F., Sophia Chang on, Koblin, J., Nate Schweber in, et al. (2006, March 19). That Sound You Hear? The Market Coming Down to Earth. New York Times, p. 14CN5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kauer, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Crone & Tolstoy, 2010; Kauer, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Crone & Tolstoy, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Moon et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth and Space Science
AbbreviationEarth Space Sci.
ISSN (online)2333-5084

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