How to format your references using the Earth and Space Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth and Space Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (2008). Psychology. Trust me on this. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5890), 778–780.
A journal article with 2 authors
Waters, M. R., & Stafford, T. W., Jr. (2007). Redefining the age of Clovis: implications for the peopling of the Americas. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5815), 1122–1126.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wagner, C. E., Harmon, L. J., & Seehausen, O. (2012). Ecological opportunity and sexual selection together predict adaptive radiation. Nature, 487(7407), 366–369.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jiang, Y. J., Aerne, B. L., Smithers, L., Haddon, C., Ish-Horowicz, D., & Lewis, J. (2000). Notch signalling and the synchronization of the somite segmentation clock. Nature, 408(6811), 475–479.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tavakoli, J. M. (2008). Structured Finance and Collateralized Debt Obligations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Khurana, J. S. (2010). Essentials in Bone and Soft-Tissue Pathology. (E. F. McCarthy & P. J. Zhang, Eds.). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Shi, M., Zhang, Z., & Zhou, D. (2015). Studies on Carrying Capacity of Water Resources in Beijing and Tianjin: Based on the Water Footprint. In K. Wen & E. Zhu (Eds.), Report on Development of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei Province (2013): Measurement of Carrying Capacity and Countermeasures (pp. 99–118). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth and Space Science.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, October 3). Yoshinori Ohsumi – A Deserving Winner Of The Nobel Prize For Physiology Or Medicine. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Mass Transit: Federal Participation in Transit Benefit Programs (No. T-RCED-93-72). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Venegas Carro, G. I. (2017). The Slow Movements of Anton Bruckner’s Symphonies: Dialogical Perspectives (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wong, E. (2017, June 2). Can China Lead Way on Climate Change? Domestic Divide Could Make It Difficult. New York Times, p. A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Meyer-Lindenberg, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Meyer-Lindenberg, 2008; Waters & Stafford, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Waters & Stafford, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Jiang et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth and Space Science
AbbreviationEarth Space Sci.
ISSN (online)2333-5084

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