How to format your references using the Earth and Space Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth and Space Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abreu, A. (2012). Harnessing new scientific capacity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6087), 1397.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vaahtomeri, K., & Sixt, M. (2014). Physiology: Relax and come in. Nature, 514(7523), 441–442.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kareiva, P., Chang, A., & Marvier, M. (2008). Environmental economics. Development and conservation goals in World Bank projects. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5896), 1638–1639.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Huang, H., Regan, K. M., Lou, Z., Chen, J., & Tindall, D. J. (2006). CDK2-dependent phosphorylation of FOXO1 as an apoptotic response to DNA damage. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5797), 294–297.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lütolf-Carroll, C., Antti Pirnes, & Withers LLP. (2009). From Innovation to Cash Flows. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wynberg, R., Schroeder, D., & Chennells, R. (Eds.). (2009). Indigenous Peoples, Consent and Benefit Sharing: Lessons from the San-Hoodia Case. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Cook, A. (2013). Feeling Better: Moral Sense and Sensibility in Enlightenment Thought. In H. M. Lloyd (Ed.), The Discourse of Sensibility: The Knowing Body in the Enlightenment (pp. 85–103). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth and Space Science.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. (2016, November 17). A Few Awesome Facts About Your Own Body That You Probably Didn’t Know. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Meeting the Government’s Technology Challenge: Results of a GAO Symposium (No. IMTEC-90-23). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fortenbery, N. R. (2012). Regulation of Natural Killer Cells: SHIP-1, 2B4, and Immunomodulation by Lenalidomide (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kershner, I., Goldman, A., Blinder, A., & Pérez-Peña, R. (2017, March 23). Teenager in Israel Is Arrested in Threats to U.S. Jewish Centers. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abreu, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Abreu, 2012; Vaahtomeri & Sixt, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vaahtomeri & Sixt, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth and Space Science
AbbreviationEarth Space Sci.
ISSN (online)2333-5084

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