How to format your references using the Earth and Space Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth and Space Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fan, X. (2003). Astronomy. Black holes at the cosmic dawn. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5620), 752–753.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vinnakota, R. K., & Genov, D. A. (2014). Terahertz optoelectronics with surface plasmon polariton diode. Scientific Reports, 4, 4899.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sampson, S. D., Carrano, M. T., & Forster, C. A. (2001). A bizarre predatory dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Nature, 409(6819), 504–506.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gao, C., Liu, T., Shuai, C., & Peng, S. (2014). Enhancement mechanisms of graphene in nano-58S bioactive glass scaffold: mechanical and biological performance. Scientific Reports, 4, 4712.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Venkataraman, K. (2015). Design of Jigs, Fixtures and Press Tools. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Grimvall, G., Holmgren, Å. J., Jacobsson, P., & Thedéen, T. (Eds.). (2010). Risks in Technological Systems. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lemaire, F., & Ürgüplü, A. (2012). MABSys: Modeling and Analysis of Biological Systems. In K. Horimoto, M. Nakatsui, & N. Popov (Eds.), Algebraic and Numeric Biology: 4th International Conference, ANB 2010, Hagenberg, Austria, July 31- August 2, 2010, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 57–75). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth and Space Science.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, January 23). Asteroids Might Camouflage Themselves With Material From Elsewhere. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1981). Changes Needed in Administering Relief to Industries Hurt by Overseas Competition (No. ID-81-42). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tate, K. J. (2014). Utilizing Canines in a Public School Setting: A Case Study (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, L. (2006, February 3). Flourishing in Puget Sound With a Counterculture Past. New York Times, p. F11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fan, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Fan, 2003; Vinnakota & Genov, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vinnakota & Genov, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Gao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth and Space Science
AbbreviationEarth Space Sci.
ISSN (online)2333-5084

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