How to format your references using the Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruiz, J.: The early heat loss evolution of Mars and their implications for internal and environmental history, Sci. Rep., 4, 4338, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Emery, N. J. and Clayton, N. S.: The mentality of crows: convergent evolution of intelligence in corvids and apes, Science, 306(5703), 1903–1907, 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
Le Mée, L., Girardeau, J. and Monnier, C.: Mantle segmentation along the Oman ophiolite fossil mid-ocean ridge, Nature, 432(7014), 167–172, 2004.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Li, J., Browning, S., Mahal, S. P., Oelschlegel, A. M. and Weissmann, C.: Darwinian evolution of prions in cell culture, Science, 327(5967), 869–872, 2010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vorbrüggen, H.: Silicon-Mediated Transformations of Functional Groups, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG., 2005.
An edited book
Johannes, W. J.: Gravity Interpretation: Fundamentals and Application of Gravity Inversion and Geological Interpretation, edited by P. L. Smilde, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Webster, R. G., Webby, R. J. and Perdue, M.: The Origin and Evolution of H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Viruses, in Influenza Vaccines for the Future, edited by R. Rappuoli and G. Del Giudice, pp. 77–93, Springer, Basel., 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics.

Blog post
Taub, B.: Soldiers’ Brains Electrocuted To Make Them More Attentive, IFLScience, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Modernization Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cuthbertson, T. H.: The fool’s replies: Toward a poetics of folly in Shakespeare’s comedies, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN., 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Photographs by GEORGE ETHEREDGE for THE NEW YORK TIMES: Early Spring Flowers, New York Times, 31st March, RE10, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ruiz, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Emery and Clayton, 2004; Ruiz, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Emery and Clayton, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleNonlinear Processes in Geophysics
AbbreviationNonlinear Process. Geophys.
ISSN (print)1023-5809
ISSN (online)1607-7946

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