How to format your references using the Complex Analysis and its Synergies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Complex Analysis and its Synergies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cully, M.: Drug development: Chemical brace. Nature. 503, S10-2 (2013)
A journal article with 2 authors
Moura, A.C. de A., Lee, P.C.: Capuchin stone tool use in Caatinga dry forest. Science. 306, 1909 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Sereno, M.I., Pitzalis, S., Martinez, A.: Mapping of contralateral space in retinotopic coordinates by a parietal cortical area in humans. Science. 294, 1350–1354 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, S.-W., Han, S.-W., Sririyanum, M., Park, C.-J., Seo, Y.-S., Ronald, P.C.: A type I-secreted, sulfated peptide triggers XA21-mediated innate immunity. Science. 326, 850–853 (2009)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wren, C.: Concise Guide to Pediatric Arrhythmias. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2011)
An edited book
Bock, R., Knoop, V. eds: Genomics of Chloroplasts and Mitochondria. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
Kelle, S., Strobbe, C., Zimmermann, G.: A Showcase for Accessible Online Banking. In: Stephanidis, C. and Antona, M. (eds.) Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Design for All and Accessibility Practice: 8th International Conference, UAHCI 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014, Proceedings, Part IV. pp. 37–45. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Complex Analysis and its Synergies.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Thunder God Vine Extract Makes Obese Mice Rapidly Shed The Pounds,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Toward the Moon, Asteroids, and Mars. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1992)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mills Campbell, D.: Exploratory Inquiry: Fundraising at Historically Black Colleges and Universities to Reduce Resource Dependence, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Díaz, M.E., Neuman, W.: U.S. Filmmaker Held in Venezuela Sought to Show Political Divide, Friends Say, (2013)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComplex Analysis and its Synergies
AbbreviationComplex Anal. Its Synerg.
ISSN (online)2197-120X

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