How to format your references using the Complex Analysis and its Synergies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Complex Analysis and its Synergies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoare, M.G.: Astronomy. How young stars grow and become focused. Science. 348, 44–45 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Ramos, S.B.V., Laederach, A.: Molecular biology: A second layer of information in RNA. Nature. 505, 621–622 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Humayun, M., Qin, L., Norman, M.D.: Geochemical evidence for excess iron in the mantle beneath Hawaii. Science. 306, 91–94 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schneider, M.E., Belyantseva, I.A., Azevedo, R.B., Kachar, B.: Rapid renewal of auditory hair bundles. Nature. 418, 837–838 (2002)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen, K.: Performance Evaluation by Simulation and Analysis with Applications to Computer Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2015)
An edited book
Balkun, M.M., Imbarrato, S.C. eds: Women’s Narratives of the Early Americas and the Formation of Empire. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Allen, T.C.: Lung Cancer Stem Cells. In: Cagle, P.T., Allen, T.C., Beasley, M.B., Chirieac, L.R., Dacic, S., Borczuk, A.C., and Kerr, K.M. (eds.) Molecular Pathology of Lung Cancer. pp. 27–33. Springer, New York, NY (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Complex Analysis and its Synergies.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: Black Holes Spotted Eating Stars So Fast, That The Winds Reach One Quarter Of The Speed Of Light,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Highway Research: The Second Strategic Highway Research Program Addresses the Four Required Areas, but Some Anticipated Research Was Not Funded. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2010)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clendening, R.J.: A structured methodology for unifying functional analysis with systems analysis to enhance system behavior knowledge, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis, A.: On Eve of Graduation, University of Chicago Student President May Face Expulsion, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComplex Analysis and its Synergies
AbbreviationComplex Anal. Its Synerg.
ISSN (online)2197-120X

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