How to format your references using the Complex Analysis and its Synergies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Complex Analysis and its Synergies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Murray, T.H.: Genetics. Stirring the simmering “designer baby” pot. Science. 343, 1208–1210 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Erdélyi, R., Fedun, V.: Are there Alfvén waves in the solar atmosphere? Science. 318, 1572–1574 (2007)
A journal article with 3 authors
Xue, S., Calvin, K., Li, H.: RNA recognition and cleavage by a splicing endonuclease. Science. 312, 906–910 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Roach, J.C., Glusman, G., Smit, A.F.A., Huff, C.D., Hubley, R., Shannon, P.T., Rowen, L., Pant, K.P., Goodman, N., Bamshad, M., Shendure, J., Drmanac, R., Jorde, L.B., Hood, L., Galas, D.J.: Analysis of genetic inheritance in a family quartet by whole-genome sequencing. Science. 328, 636–639 (2010)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen, K.: Performance Evaluation by Simulation and Analysis with Applications to Computer Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2015)
An edited book
Wheeler, D.S., Wong, H.R., Shanley, T.P. eds: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine: Volume 4: Peri-operative Care of the Critically Ill or Injured Child. Springer, London (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Shaffer, L.: Biosurveillance Based on Test Orders from Veterinary Diagnostic Labs. In: Castillo-Chavez, C., Chen, H., Lober, W.B., Thurmond, M., and Zeng, D. (eds.) Infectious Disease Informatics and Biosurveillance: Research, Systems and Case Studies. pp. 89–107. Springer US, Boston, MA (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Complex Analysis and its Synergies.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Hitchhiking Robot Is Decapitated And Left In A Ditch After Just Two Weeks,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: IRS ADP Contracts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1992)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sweeney, M.T.: Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare treatment outcomes: Wediko Children’s Services short-term residential treatment program, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J.: ‘I Am Cait,’ Failing to Attract Viewers, Is Ending After Two Seasons, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComplex Analysis and its Synergies
AbbreviationComplex Anal. Its Synerg.
ISSN (online)2197-120X

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