How to format your references using the Case Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Pearson, Biotech firms pin hopes on defence, Nature. 422 (2003) 790.
A journal article with 2 authors
L.M. Zahn, J. Travis, Cancer genomics. A medical renaissance? Introduction, Science. 339 (2013) 1539.
A journal article with 3 authors
K.H. Rubin, C.H. Fletcher 3rd, C. Sherman, Fossiliferous Lana’i deposits formed by multiple events rather than a single giant tsunami, Nature. 408 (2000) 675–681.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B.C. Larson, W. Yang, G.E. Ice, J.D. Budai, J.Z. Tischler, Three-dimensional X-ray structural microscopy with submicrometre resolution, Nature. 415 (2002) 887–890.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Morsali, L. Hashemi, Main Group Metal Coordination Polymers, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
B.I. Jugdutt, N.S. Dhalla, eds., Cardiac Remodeling: Molecular Mechanisms, Springer, New York, NY, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Jobst, J. Döllner, Better Perception of 3D-Spatial Relations by Viewport Variations, in: M. Sebillo, G. Vitiello, G. Schaefer (Eds.), Visual Information Systems. Web-Based Visual Information Search and Management: 10th International Conference, VISUAL 2008, Salerno, Italy, September 11-12, 2008. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 7–18.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing.

Blog post
E. Andrew, New Insight Into Astrocytic Signalling Within The Brain, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, National Airspace System: Progress and Ongoing Challenges for the Air Traffic Organization, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.J. LaVertu, An Exploratory Approach to In-Trinity® for Fall Prevention, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Krauss, J. Schwartz, Views on State Dept. Pick Hinge on Oil Industry, New York Times. (2016) A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing
ISSN (print)2351-9886

Other styles