How to format your references using the Case Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C.T. Campbell, Physics. The active site in nanoparticle gold catalysis, Science. 306 (2004) 234–235.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Lucht, D. Rosskopf, Comment on “Genetically determined differences in learning from errors,” Science. 321 (2008) 200; author reply 200.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.A. Aravin, G.J. Hannon, J. Brennecke, The Piwi-piRNA pathway provides an adaptive defense in the transposon arms race, Science. 318 (2007) 761–764.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.L. Gee, M. Burton, A. Grevis-James, M.A. Hossain, S. McArthur, E.A. Palombo, J.D. Wade, A.H.A. Clayton, Imaging the action of antimicrobial peptides on living bacterial cells, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1557.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Olsen, The Lean Product Playbook, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
S. Michail, P.M. Sherman, eds., Probiotics in Pediatric Medicine, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Richards, Euthanasia and Policy — Choosing When to Die, in: L. Foster, K. Woodthorpe (Eds.), Death and Social Policy in Challenging Times, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016: pp. 53–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Pure Antimalarial Medications Synthesized From Plant Waste Products, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Mass Transit: Use of Alternative Fuels in Transit Buses, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Steinberg, The Social Construction of Beauty: Body Modification Examined Through the Lens of Social Learning Theory, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Paulson, ‘Groundhog Day’ Will Close on Sept. 17, New York Times. (2017) C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing
ISSN (print)2351-9886

Other styles