How to format your references using the Early Child Development and Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Child Development and Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schmidt, D. (2013). Science & SciLifeLab Prize. Evolution of vertebrate transcriptional regulator binding. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6163), 1186.
A journal article with 2 authors
Alekseyenko, A. A., & Kuroda, M. I. (2004). Molecular biology. Filling gaps in genome organization. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5661), 1148–1149.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wei, B., Dai, M., & Yin, P. (2012). Complex shapes self-assembled from single-stranded DNA tiles. Nature, 485(7400), 623–626.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kuwayama, Y., Hirose, K., Sata, N., & Ohishi, Y. (2005). The pyrite-type high-pressure form of silica. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5736), 923–925.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chan, E. P. (2013). Algorithmic Trading. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Priami, C., Merelli, E., Gonzalez, P., & Omicini, A. (Eds.). (2005). Transactions on Computational Systems Biology III (Vol. 3737). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Iosifidis, P., & Wheeler, M. (2016). Western Media Policy Frameworks and Values. In M. Wheeler (Ed.), Public Spheres and Mediated Social Networks in the Western Context and Beyond (pp. 65–92). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Child Development and Care.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015, October 23). The White House Starts Twitter Account To Spread Awareness Of Climate Change. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Information Reported by Federal Organizations on the Purpose, Duration, and Cost Associated With Cable Television (CED-76-149). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kuru, I. C. (2013). Time-Dependent Vehicle Routing and Assignment in No-Notice Evacuations [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. (2013, June 30). What Made Him Tick. New York Times, BR22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schmidt, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Alekseyenko & Kuroda, 2004; Schmidt, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Alekseyenko & Kuroda, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Wei et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kuwayama et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Child Development and Care
AbbreviationEarly Child Dev. Care
ISSN (print)0300-4430
ISSN (online)1476-8275
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Social Psychology

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