How to format your references using the Early Child Development and Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Child Development and Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gangopadhyay, S. S. (2013). Systemic administration of follistatin288 increases muscle mass and reduces fat accumulation in mice. Scientific Reports, 3, 2441.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bradshaw, G. A., & Finlay, B. L. (2005). Natural symmetry. Nature, 435(7039), 149.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bar-Yam, Y., Harmon, D., & de Bivort, B. (2009). Systems biology. Attractors and democratic dynamics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5917), 1016–1017.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, X., Lu, W., Dai, J., Bourgeois, L., Yao, J., Wang, H., Friend, J. R., Zhao, D., & MacFarlane, D. R. (2014). Nanofabrication of highly ordered, tunable metallic mesostructures via quasi-hard-templating of lyotropic liquid crystals. Scientific Reports, 4, 7420.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McLeish, B. (2010). Successful Marketing Strategies for Nonprofit Organizations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Stefanović, D. (2008). Structured Analog CMOS Design (M. Kayal, Ed.). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Sakadevan, K., & Nguyen, M.-L. (2015). Factors Influencing Water Dynamics in Agriculture. In E. Lichtfouse (Ed.), Sustainable Agriculture Reviews: Volume 18 (pp. 145–180). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Child Development and Care.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, November 4). Songbirds Share Our Musical Scales. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Highway Infrastructure: Stakeholders’ Views on Time to Conduct Environmental Reviews of Highway Projects (GAO-03-534). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bailey, K. M. (2017). A Phenomenological Study of How Biblical Spiritual Disciplines Influence Women’s Character and Leadership Practices in Christian Faith-based Institutions in Higher Education in North America [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2016, October 28). Bob Dylan Responds, Elliptically, to His Nobel Prize After a Two-Week Silence. New York Times, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gangopadhyay, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Bradshaw & Finlay, 2005; Gangopadhyay, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bradshaw & Finlay, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Bar-Yam et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Child Development and Care
AbbreviationEarly Child Dev. Care
ISSN (print)0300-4430
ISSN (online)1476-8275
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Social Psychology

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