How to format your references using the Early Child Development and Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Child Development and Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alvarez, M. (2007). A question of supply and demand. Nature, 445(7123), 124.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sacco, T., & Sacchetti, B. (2010). Role of secondary sensory cortices in emotional memory storage and retrieval in rats. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5992), 649–656.
A journal article with 3 authors
Plante, O. J., Palmacci, E. R., & Seeberger, P. H. (2001). Automated solid-phase synthesis of oligosaccharides. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5508), 1523–1527.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tobin, V. A., Hashimoto, H., Wacker, D. W., Takayanagi, Y., Langnaese, K., Caquineau, C., … Ludwig, M. (2010). An intrinsic vasopressin system in the olfactory bulb is involved in social recognition. Nature, 464(7287), 413–417.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prud’Homme, R. (2013). Flows and Chemical Reactions in Homogeneous Mixtures. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Arena, P., & Patanè, L. (Eds.). (2009). Spatial Temporal Patterns for Action-Oriented Perception in Roving Robots (Vol. 1). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Iosifidis, P., & Wheeler, M. (2016). Modern Political Communication and Web 2.0 in Representative Democracies: The United States and the British Experience. In M. Wheeler (Ed.), Public Spheres and Mediated Social Networks in the Western Context and Beyond (pp. 95–121). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Child Development and Care.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, October 22). New Horizons Reveals The Mystery Of Kerberos. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Student and Exchange Visitor Program: DHS Needs to Take Actions to Strengthen Monitoring of Schools (No. GAO-12-895T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Himschoot, A. R. (2012). Student perception of relevance of biology content to everyday life: A study in higher education biology courses (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, S. (2015, April 5). Refusing My Religion. New York Times, p. BR10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alvarez, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Alvarez, 2007; Sacco & Sacchetti, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sacco & Sacchetti, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Plante, Palmacci, & Seeberger, 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Tobin et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Child Development and Care
AbbreviationEarly Child Dev. Care
ISSN (print)0300-4430
ISSN (online)1476-8275
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Social Psychology

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