How to format your references using the Early Child Development and Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Child Development and Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Granovetter, M. (2003). Social science. Ignorance, knowledge, and outcomes in a small world. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5634), 773–774.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ramocki, M. B., & Zoghbi, H. Y. (2008). Failure of neuronal homeostasis results in common neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Nature, 455(7215), 912–918.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bao, H., Lyons, J. R., & Zhou, C. (2008). Triple oxygen isotope evidence for elevated CO2 levels after a Neoproterozoic glaciation. Nature, 453(7194), 504–506.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lay, A. J., Jiang, X. M., Kisker, O., Flynn, E., Underwood, A., Condron, R., & Hogg, P. J. (2000). Phosphoglycerate kinase acts in tumour angiogenesis as a disulphide reductase. Nature, 408(6814), 869–873.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scharf, T. (2006). Polarized Light in Liquid Crystals and Polymers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chiu, M.-H., Gilmer, P. J., & Treagust, D. F. (Eds.). (2011). Celebrating the 100th Anniversary of Madame Marie Sklodowska Curie’s Nobel Prize in Chemistry. SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Gor’kov, L. P. (2008). Theory of Superconducting Alloys. In K. H. Bennemann & J. B. Ketterson (Eds.), Superconductivity: Conventional and Unconventional Superconductors (pp. 201–224). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Child Development and Care.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, April 15). The Earth Hums - And Now We Know Why. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2013). Transportation Worker Identification Credential: Card Reader Pilot Results Are Unreliable; Security Benefits Should Be Reassessed (GAO-13-695T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ports, M. O. (2009). Laterally associated proteins modulate α6 integrin cleavage, a permissive process utilized during cancer metastasis [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Shear, M. D. (2017, October 8). President Issues Terms of a Deal Over ‘Dreamers.’ New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Granovetter, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Granovetter, 2003; Ramocki & Zoghbi, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ramocki & Zoghbi, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Bao et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lay et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Child Development and Care
AbbreviationEarly Child Dev. Care
ISSN (print)0300-4430
ISSN (online)1476-8275
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Social Psychology

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