How to format your references using the Ear and Hearing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ear and Hearing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ricci-Tersenghi, F. (2010). Mathematics. Being glassy without being hard to solve. Science, 330, 1639–1640.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shen, Y., Lua, A.C. (2013). A facile method for the large-scale continuous synthesis of graphene sheets using a novel catalyst. Sci. Rep., 3, 3037.
A journal article with 3 authors
Niemeier, M., Crawford, J.D., Tweed, D.B. (2003). Optimal transsaccadic integration explains distorted spatial perception. Nature, 422, 76–80.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fischer, T.P., Hilton, D.R., Zimmer, M.M., et al. (2002). Subduction and recycling of nitrogen along the Central American margin. Science, 297, 1154–1157.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kappe, C.O., Stadler, A., Dallinger, D. (2012). Microwaves in Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Bostan, B. ed. (2016). Gamer Psychology and Behavior, Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Rao, K.S., Sarkar, S. (2014). Stochastic Feature Compensation for Robust Speaker Verification. In S. Sarkar, ed. Robust Speaker Recognition in Noisy Environments. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. (pp. 49–76). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ear and Hearing.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015). Ants Self-Medicate To Ward Off Fungal Infections. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982). Information on the Funded Legal Education Program, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chhun, S. (2010). Assessing the role of vacuolar trafficking in fifteen candidate env genes at the late endosome to vacuole interface in S. cerevisiae. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1998). Cobble Hill as Baden-Baden. New York Times, 1410.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ricci-Tersenghi 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Ricci-Tersenghi 2010; Shen & Lua 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shen & Lua 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Fischer et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEar and Hearing
AbbreviationEar Hear.
ISSN (print)0196-0202
ISSN (online)1538-4667
Speech and Hearing

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