How to format your references using the Ear and Hearing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ear and Hearing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Selkoe, D.J. (2002). Alzheimer’s disease is a synaptic failure. Science, 298, 789–791.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marmorstein, R., Simon, M.C. (2015). Structural biology: Hypoxia response becomes crystal clear. Nature, 524, 298–300.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wei, B., Dai, M., Yin, P. (2012). Complex shapes self-assembled from single-stranded DNA tiles. Nature, 485, 623–626.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dubrova, Y.E., Plumb, M., Gutierrez, B., et al. (2000). Transgenerational mutation by radiation. Nature, 405, 37.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Butler, K.C. (2016). Multinational Finance, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Garcia, P.J.V., Ferreira, J.M. eds. (2010). Jets from Young Stars IV: From Models to Observations and Experiments, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cimmino, A., Casali, F., Mambretti, C. (2009). Weird Project: E-Health Service Improvement Using WiMAX. In D. Weerasinghe, ed. Electronic Healthcare: First International Conference, eHealth 2008, London, UK, September 8-9, 2008. Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. (pp. 38–49). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ear and Hearing.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015). Why Does Marijuana Give You The Munchies? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991). Highway Safety: Have Automobile Weight Reductions Increased Highway Fatalities?, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tomlinson, K.L. (2008). Working with the imaginal: Art-making and dialogue with figures of soul. Doctoral dissertation. Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Strauss, B. (2017). N.L.R.B. Lawyer Affirms Athletes’ Rights. New York Times, B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Selkoe 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Selkoe 2002; Marmorstein & Simon 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Marmorstein & Simon 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Dubrova et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEar and Hearing
AbbreviationEar Hear.
ISSN (print)0196-0202
ISSN (online)1538-4667
Speech and Hearing

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