How to format your references using the Ear and Hearing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ear and Hearing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Geisbert, T.W. (2014). Medical research: Ebola therapy protects severely ill monkeys. Nature, 514, 41–43.
A journal article with 2 authors
Milhous, W.K., Weina, P.J. (2010). Plant science. The botanical solution for malaria. Science, 327, 279–280.
A journal article with 3 authors
Migliari, S., Fender, R., Méndez, M. (2002). Iron emission lines from extended x-ray jets in SS 433: reheating of atomic nuclei. Science, 297, 1673–1676.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, J., Bursten, B.E., Liang, B., et al. (2002). Noble gas-actinide compounds: complexation of the CUO molecule by Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms in noble gas matrices. Science, 295, 2242–2245.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jazar, R.N. (2011). Advanced Dynamics, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rimdusit, S. (2013). Alloys and Composites of Polybenzoxazines: Properties and Applications C. Jubsilp & S. Tiptipakorn, eds., Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kalmar, B., Greensmith, L. (2008). Heat Shock Proteins as Therapeutic Targets in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. In A. A. A. Asea & I. R. Brown, eds. Heat Shock Proteins and the Brain: Implications for Neurodegenerative Diseases and Neuroprotection. (pp. 69–107). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ear and Hearing.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). How You Can Help Make A Movie About Bill Nye. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977). The Title I Program for the Handicapped, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koenig, W.E. (2010). Leadership for the whole in the mythic field of C. G. Jung’s unconscious processes. Doctoral dissertation. Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O. (2016). Valentines, Vengeful and Comic, Through an Antique Lens. New York Times, C28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Geisbert 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Geisbert 2014; Milhous & Weina 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Milhous & Weina 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEar and Hearing
AbbreviationEar Hear.
ISSN (print)0196-0202
ISSN (online)1538-4667
Speech and Hearing

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