How to format your references using the Ear and Hearing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ear and Hearing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gammon, K. (2014). Orthopaedics: Joint effort. Nature, 515, S170-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gray, G.M., Cohen, J.T. (2012). Policy: Rethink chemical risk assessments. Nature, 489, 27–28.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wolf, S.M., Annas, G.J., Elias, S. (2013). Point-counterpoint. Patient autonomy and incidental findings in clinical genomics. Science, 340, 1049–1050.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Brixner, T., Damrauer, N.H., Niklaus, P., et al. (2001). Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase. Nature, 414, 57–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Speight, J.G. (2005). Environmental Analysis and Technology for the Refining Industry, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Knüpfer, A., Hilbrich, T., Niethammer, C., et al. eds. (2016). Tools for High Performance Computing 2015: Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Parallel Tools for High Performance Computing, September 2015, Dresden, Germany, Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sinclair, C., Macleod, H. (2015). Literally Virtual: The Reality of the Online Teacher. In P. Jandrić & D. Boras, eds. Critical Learning in Digital Networks. (pp. 77–99). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ear and Hearing.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Fish Oil Supplements Could Prevent The Onset Of Psychotic Disorders. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993). Department of Education: Long-Standing Management Problems Hamper Reforms, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guilford, T.D. (2010). Advocacy for former prisoners to eliminate invisible bars: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2008). Justices Won’t Hear Appeal On Drugs for Terminally Ill. New York Times, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gammon 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gammon 2014; Gray & Cohen 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gray & Cohen 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Brixner et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEar and Hearing
AbbreviationEar Hear.
ISSN (print)0196-0202
ISSN (online)1538-4667
Speech and Hearing

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