How to format your references using the Ear and Hearing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ear and Hearing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gomez, N. (2015). Climate science: Small glacier has big effect on sea-level rise. Nature, 526, 510–512.
A journal article with 2 authors
Petersen, J., Hagan, I.M. (2005). Polo kinase links the stress pathway to cell cycle control and tip growth in fission yeast. Nature, 435, 507–512.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hata, S., Nakao, H., Mikhailov, A.S. (2014). Dispersal-induced destabilization of metapopulations and oscillatory Turing patterns in ecological networks. Sci. Rep., 4, 3585.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Körtzinger, A., Schimanski, J., Send, U., et al. (2004). The ocean takes a deep breath. Science, 306, 1337.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coates, M., Jenkins, B. (2010). Electrical Installation Calculations: For Compliance with BS 7671:2008, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Reichow, B., Boyd, B.A., Barton, E.E., et al. eds. (2016). Handbook of Early Childhood Special Education, Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ferretti, M., Parmentola, A. (2015). The University-Driven LISs. In A. Parmentola, ed. The Creation of Local Innovation Systems in Emerging Countries: The Role of Governments, Firms and Universities. SpringerBriefs in Regional Science. (pp. 91–114). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ear and Hearing.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017). NASA Don’t Know What This Hole On Mars Is. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990). Aviation: FAA’s Use and Management of Communications Resources, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nuñez, E.M. (2017). Getting H.I.P. with First-Generation College Students: Decolonizing the High Impact Practice Movement. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017). Roland Garros Is Assured of a First-Time Finalist. New York Times, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gomez 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Gomez 2015; Petersen & Hagan 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Petersen & Hagan 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Körtzinger et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEar and Hearing
AbbreviationEar Hear.
ISSN (print)0196-0202
ISSN (online)1538-4667
Speech and Hearing

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