How to format your references using the Ear and Hearing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ear and Hearing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Telling, G. (2015). Neurodegeneration: Evolved protection against human prions. Nature, 522, 423–424.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rejec, T., Meir, Y. (2006). Magnetic impurity formation in quantum point contacts. Nature, 442, 900–903.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brown, M.S., Ye, J., Goldstein, J.L. (2010). Medicine. HDL miR-ed down by SREBP introns. Science, 328, 1495–1496.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Alleman, M., Sidorenko, L., McGinnis, K., et al. (2006). An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is required for paramutation in maize. Nature, 442, 295–298.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Habart-Corlosquet, M., Janssen, J., Manca, R. (2013). VaR Methodology for Non-Gaussian Finance, Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Leszczynski, J., Shukla, M.K. eds. (2012). Practical Aspects of Computational Chemistry I: An Overview of the Last Two Decades and Current Trends, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Jha, P., Bora, P.S., Sohn, J.-H., et al. (2006). Complement System and the Eye. In J. D. Lambris, ed. Current Topics in Complement. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. (pp. 53–62). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ear and Hearing.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016). Alzheimer’s Breakthrough? Have We Nearly Cured Dementia? Not Just Yet…. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009). Freight Rail Security: Actions Have Been Taken to Enhance Security, but the Federal Strategy Can Be Strengthened and Security Efforts Better Monitored, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bratton, K.J. (2014). Modeling and Control of Heterogeneous Tumors Under Chemotherapy. Doctoral dissertation. Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chavez, L. (2006). American Dreams, Foreign Flags. New York Times, A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Telling 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Telling 2015; Rejec & Meir 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rejec & Meir 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Alleman et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEar and Hearing
AbbreviationEar Hear.
ISSN (print)0196-0202
ISSN (online)1538-4667
Speech and Hearing

Other styles