How to format your references using the Ear and Hearing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ear and Hearing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, M. (2015). Medicine: Eyes on the target. Nature, 527, S110-2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, X., Key, J.R. (2003). Recent trends in Arctic surface, cloud, and radiation properties from space. Science, 299, 1725–1728.
A journal article with 3 authors
Paniagua-Domínguez, R., Abujetas, D.R., Sánchez-Gil, J.A. (2013). Ultra low-loss, isotropic optical negative-index metamaterial based on hybrid metal-semiconductor nanowires. Sci. Rep., 3, 1507.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, S.Q., Song, L.S., Lakatta, E.G., et al. (2001). Ca2+ signalling between single L-type Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors in heart cells. Nature, 410, 592–596.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tardu, S. (2011). Statistical Approach to Wall Turbulence, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wanner, A., Sandhaus, R.A. eds. (2016). Alpha-1 Antitrypsin: Role in Health and Disease 1st ed. 2016., Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Averchi, M. (2015). Husserl and Geiger on Feelings and Intentionality. In M. Ubiali & M. Wehrle, eds. Feeling and Value, Willing and Action: Essays in the Context of a Phenomenological Psychology. Phaenomenologica. (pp. 71–91). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ear and Hearing.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2016). New Titanosaur Discovered in Argentina Had Big Eye Sockets And A Downturned Snout. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990). Space Projects: Improvements Needed in Selecting Future Projects for Private Financing, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fertig, B.M. (2010). Stable nitrogen isotopes (delta-nitrogen-15) in the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) as an indicator of nitrogen source. Doctoral dissertation. College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2016). Broadway’s Savior Meets His Match. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenstein 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Eisenstein 2015; Wang & Key 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang & Key 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEar and Hearing
AbbreviationEar Hear.
ISSN (print)0196-0202
ISSN (online)1538-4667
Speech and Hearing

Other styles