How to format your references using the Ear and Hearing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ear and Hearing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chiorescu, I. (2006). Physics. Microwave cooling of an artificial atom. Science, 314, 1549–1550.
A journal article with 2 authors
Willis, J.K., Church, J.A. (2012). Climate change. Regional sea-level projection. Science, 336, 550–551.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blumenstock, J., Cadamuro, G., On, R. (2015). Predicting poverty and wealth from mobile phone metadata. Science, 350, 1073–1076.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hill, C.A., Fox, A.N., Pitts, R.J., et al. (2002). G protein-coupled receptors in Anopheles gambiae. Science, 298, 176–178.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benslama, M., Boucenna, M.L., Batatia, H. (2015). Ad Hoc Networks Telecommunications and Game Theory, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mackenzie, F.T. (2006). Carbon in the Geobiosphere — Earth’s Outer Shell — A. Lerman, ed., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Quarteroni, A., Saleri, F., Gervasio, P. (2012). Differenziazione ed integrazione numerica. In F. Saleri & P. Gervasio, eds. Calcolo Scientifico: Esercizi e problemi risolti con MATLAB e Octave. UNITEXT. (pp. 115–136). Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ear and Hearing.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015). This Thai Meal Gives You Liver Cancer. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979). Evaluation and the Research Process, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gardner, R.D. (2010). A time course analysis of stem cell activity following brain injury in food-storing black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Weiser, B., Protess, B., Goldstein, M., et al. (2017). A U.S. Attorney Who Shunned Politics Meets an End Tinged by Them. New York Times, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chiorescu 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Chiorescu 2006; Willis & Church 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Willis & Church 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Hill et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEar and Hearing
AbbreviationEar Hear.
ISSN (print)0196-0202
ISSN (online)1538-4667
Speech and Hearing

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