How to format your references using the International Journal of Surgery Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Surgery Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Elbaum, Materials science. Polymers in the pore, Science. 314 (2006) 766–767.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. Hengel, U.H. Koszinowski, Virology. A vaccine monkey wrench?, Science. 328 (2010) 51–52.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Steinacher, F. Joos, T.F. Stocker, Allowable carbon emissions lowered by multiple climate targets, Nature. 499 (2013) 197–201.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
V.P. Andreev, T. Head, N. Johnson, S.K. Deo, S. Daunert, P.J. Goldschmidt-Clermont, Discrete event simulation model of sudden cardiac death predicts high impact of preventive interventions, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1771.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G.A. Korn, Advanced Dynamic-System Simulation, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
M. Epstein, Material Inhomogeneities and their Evolution: A Geometric Approach, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Schiff, A. Sasson, Y. Nuri, E. Ben-Artzi, The Efficiency of Metacognitive and Metalinguistic Awareness in Word Spelling Among Hebrew Speaking Children with SLI: An Intervention Study, in: R. Schiff, R.M. Joshi (Eds.), Interventions in Learning Disabilities: A Handbook on Systematic Training Programs for Individuals with Learning Disabilities, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 67–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Surgery Case Reports.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Paralyzed Woman Moves Thought Controlled Robotic Arm With Immense Precision, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Security: Transportation Security Administration May Face Resource and Other Challenges in Developing a System to Screen All Cargo Transported on Passenger Aircraft, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N. Shroff, Efficient sensing, summarization and classification of videos, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
R. Fausset, A. Blinder, J. Eligon, Blacks Beg to Differ With Trump’s Depiction, New York Times. (2016) A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Surgery Case Reports
AbbreviationInt. J. Surg. Case Rep.
ISSN (print)2210-2612

Other styles