How to format your references using the International Journal of Surgery Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Surgery Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Moses, Being human: engineering: worldwide ebb, Nature. 457 (2009) 660–661.
A journal article with 2 authors
F.A. Leibfarth, C.J. Hawker, Chemistry. Mechanically throwing a reaction into reverse, Science. 333 (2011) 1582–1583.
A journal article with 3 authors
L.J. Bonderer, A.R. Studart, L.J. Gauckler, Bioinspired design and assembly of platelet reinforced polymer films, Science. 319 (2008) 1069–1073.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.-M. Yong, M.-L. Lim, C.-M. Low, B.-S. Wong, Reduced neuronal signaling in the ageing apolipoprotein-E4 targeted replacement female mice, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6580.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Abu-Jamous, R. Fa, A.K. Nandi, Integrative Cluster Analysis in Bioinformatics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
S. Berkowitz, ed., Cleft Lip and Palate, 2nd Edition, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Pandey, Cash and Debt Management in States, in: C. Singh (Ed.), Public Debt Management: Separation of Debt from Monetary Management in India, Springer India, New Delhi, 2016: pp. 41–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Surgery Case Reports.

Blog post
E. Andrew, British Student No Longer Wants to Travel to Mars, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Problems Resulting From Management Practices in Recruiting, Training, and Using Non-High-School Graduates and Category IV Personnel, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.M. Warwick-Smith, Remembering Prudence: Tracking the Iconography of a Cardinal Virtue to Her Resurgence in Depth Psychology, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Eligon, Praise For Victim Prompts A Debate, New York Times. (2017) A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Surgery Case Reports
AbbreviationInt. J. Surg. Case Rep.
ISSN (print)2210-2612

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