How to format your references using the International Journal of Surgery Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Surgery Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Zellers, Scientists and societies. Building a regional postdoc community, Nature. 433 (2005) 178.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.G. Oliveira, A.-L. Barabási, Human dynamics: Darwin and Einstein correspondence patterns, Nature. 437 (2005) 1251.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.R. Kuhn, M. Emilio, R. Bush, Comment on “A large excess in apparent solar oblateness due to surface magnetism,” Science. 324 (2009) 1143; author reply 1143.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Hagai, X. Chen, R.J. Miragaia, R. Rostom, T. Gomes, N. Kunowska, J. Henriksson, J.-E. Park, V. Proserpio, G. Donati, L. Bossini-Castillo, F.A. Vieira Braga, G. Naamati, J. Fletcher, E. Stephenson, P. Vegh, G. Trynka, I. Kondova, M. Dennis, M. Haniffa, A. Nourmohammad, M. Lässig, S.A. Teichmann, Gene expression variability across cells and species shapes innate immunity, Nature. 563 (2018) 197–202.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Y. Zhang, F. Wen, M. Xiao, Quantum Control of Multi-Wave Mixing, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2013.
An edited book
C. Lai, A. Giuliani, G. Semeraro, eds., Distributed Systems and Applications of Information Filtering and Retrieval: DART 2012: Revised and Invited Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Kozai, G. Zhang, Some Aspects of the Light Environment, in: T. Kozai, K. Fujiwara, E.S. Runkle (Eds.), LED Lighting for Urban Agriculture, Springer, Singapore, 2016: pp. 49–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Surgery Case Reports.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Diving For Treasure To Help Protect The World’s Great Reefs, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Tribal Transportation: Better Data Could Improve Road Management and Inform Indian Student Attendance Strategies, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Schwartz, Essays on unemployment insurance and the business cycle, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, U.S. Shares the Blame for Feeling Cheated, New York Times. (2010) D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Surgery Case Reports
AbbreviationInt. J. Surg. Case Rep.
ISSN (print)2210-2612

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