How to format your references using the Drugs - Real World Outcomes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drugs - Real World Outcomes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ferrante AW Jr. Biomedicine. Improving metabolism by throwing out all the JNK. Science. 2013;339:147–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Qaim M, Zilberman D. Yield effects of genetically modified crops in developing countries. Science. 2003;299:900–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ohmoto H, Yamaguchi KE, Ono S. Questions regarding Precambrian sulfur isotope fractionation. Science. 2001;292:1959.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Nettles JH, Li H, Cornett B, Krahn JM, Snyder JP, Downing KH. The binding mode of epothilone A on alpha,beta-tubulin by electron crystallography. Science. 2004;305:866–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Esch GW. Ecological Parasitology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Lee S-G, Peng Z, Zhou X, Moon Y-S, Unland R, Yoo J, editors. Database Systems for Advanced Applications: 17th International Conference, DASFAA 2012, Busan, South Korea, April 15-19, 2012, Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Holt RJ, Weightman APH, Gallagher JF, Preston N, Levesley MC, Mon-Williams M, et al. Deploying a Two-Player System for Arm Rehabilitation in Schools. In: Langdon P, Clarkson J, Robinson P, Lazar J, Heylighen A, editors. Designing Inclusive Systems: Designing Inclusion for Real-world Applications. London: Springer; 2012. p. 33–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drugs - Real World Outcomes.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Pervasive Mixing Found in Genetic Ancestry of 160,000 Americans [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Railroad Safety: Weaknesses in FRA’s Safety Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Apr. Report No.: T-RCED-91-32.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Mueller C. A Multidimensional Perspective of Faculty Mentoring and Job Satisfaction during the First Year of Teaching at Lindenwood University [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Tavernise S. A Moscow of Dancing Feet, Under an Iron Fist. New York Times. 2015 Aug 9;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDrugs - Real World Outcomes
AbbreviationDrugs Real World Outcomes
ISSN (print)2199-1154
ISSN (online)2198-9788

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