How to format your references using the Drugs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drugs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gilbertson SR. Chemistry. Relay reactions that trap organometallic intermediates. Science. 2012;338:1432–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Feld GB, Born J. Neuroscience. Exploiting sleep to modify bad attitudes. Science. 2015;348:971–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Chakraborty P, Gioia G, Kieffer SW. Volcanic mesocyclones. Nature. 2009;458:497–500.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Uga Y, Yamamoto E, Kanno N, Kawai S, Mizubayashi T, Fukuoka S. A major QTL controlling deep rooting on rice chromosome 4. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3040.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Manuele FA. Advanced Safety Management Focusing on Z10 and Serious Injury Prevention. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
1. Nakanishi S, Kageyama R, Watanabe D, editors. Systems Biology: The Challenge of Complexity. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Netzer A, Meisels A. SOCIAL DCOP - Social Choice in Distributed Constraints Optimization. In: Brazier FMT, Nieuwenhuis K, Pavlin G, Warnier M, Badica C, editors. Intelligent Distributed Computing V: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing – IDC 2011, Delft, The Netherlands – October 2011. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 35–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drugs.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Three New Earth-Like Planets Might Be Our Best Bet For Finding Life [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. High Risk: Actions Needed to Address Serious Weaknesses in Federal Management of Programs Serving Indian Tribes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017 May. Report No.: GAO-17-589T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gonzales DS. Identifying factors and quantifying their impact on transportation costs of pre-processes biomass [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Rice SE. To Be Great, America Must Be Good. New York Times. 2017 Jun 2;A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDrugs
ISSN (print)0012-6667
ISSN (online)1179-1950
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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