How to format your references using the Drugs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drugs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Barnes DK. Resource availability: Ancient homes for hard-up hermit crabs. Nature. 2001;412:785–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Grumbine RE, Xu J. Environment and development. Mekong hydropower development. Science. 2011;332:178–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Djuranovic S, Nahvi A, Green R. miRNA-mediated gene silencing by translational repression followed by mRNA deadenylation and decay. Science. 2012;336:237–40.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Nedimović MR, Hyndman RD, Ramachandran K, Spence GD. Reflection signature of seismic and aseismic slip on the northern Cascadia subduction interface. Nature. 2003;424:416–20.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bonk CJ. The World is Open. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass; 2011.
An edited book
1. Wang X, Tsai JJ-H, editors. Collaborative Design in Virtual Environments. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Chen Z-S, Hseu Z-Y, Tsai C-C. Entisols. In: Hseu Z-Y, Tsai C-C, editors. The Soils of Taiwan. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 55–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drugs.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Soft Robot Keeps Moving, Even After Getting Run Over By A Car [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Government Aircraft: Observations on Travel by Senior Officials. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Jun. Report No.: NSIAD-95-168BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lynch SD. Distortion of low-frequency acoustic signals by interaction with the moving ocean surface [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. At All-Star Game, Politics and Passion Are Also in Play. New York Times. 2011 Jul 11;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDrugs
ISSN (print)0012-6667
ISSN (online)1179-1950
ScopePharmacology (medical)

Other styles