How to format your references using the Small-scale Forestry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Small-scale Forestry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stanley GD Jr (2006) Ecology. Photosymbiosis and the evolution of modern coral reefs. Science 312:857–858
A journal article with 2 authors
Mounce RCP, Wills MA (2011) Phylogenetic position of Diania challenged. Nature 476:E1; discussion E3-4
A journal article with 3 authors
Hernández AR, Klein AM, Kirschner MW (2012) Kinetic responses of β-catenin specify the sites of Wnt control. Science 338:1337–1340
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Peng CY, Manning L, Albertson R, Doe CQ (2000) The tumour-suppressor genes lgl and dlg regulate basal protein targeting in Drosophila neuroblasts. Nature 408:596–600

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keedwell E, Narayanan A (2005) Intelligent Bioinformatics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Kole C (ed) (2006) Cereals and Millets. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Khan QJA, Benkherouf L, Smaoui N (2008) Stability and Optimal Harvesting in a Stage Structure Predator-Prey Switching Strategy. In: Hosking RJ, Venturino E (eds) Aspects of Mathematical Modelling: Applications in Science, Medicine, Economics and Management. Birkhäuser, Basel, pp 65–80

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Small-scale Forestry.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2014) Meet The Snakes Born Without Scales. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Organizational Transformation: Enterprise Architecture Value Needs to Be Measured and Reported. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen TH (2015) Adolescent substance use family-based treatment: A grant proposal project. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2003) A Block of Fabled Theaters May Get an Extended Run. New York Times 147

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stanley 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Stanley 2006; Mounce and Wills 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mounce and Wills 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Peng et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmall-scale Forestry
AbbreviationSmall Scale Forest.
ISSN (print)1873-7617
ISSN (online)1873-7854

Other styles