How to format your references using the Small-scale Forestry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Small-scale Forestry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Miller DM (2007) Neuroscience. Synapses here and not everywhere. Science 317:907–908
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith G, Yard J (2008) Quantum communication with zero-capacity channels. Science 321:1812–1815
A journal article with 3 authors
Williams MA, Tyznik AJ, Bevan MJ (2006) Interleukin-2 signals during priming are required for secondary expansion of CD8+ memory T cells. Nature 441:890–893
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sakurai G, Iizumi T, Nishimori M, Yokozawa M (2014) How much has the increase in atmospheric CO2 directly affected past soybean production? Sci Rep 4:4978

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Turner JR, Durham TA (2008) Integrated Cardiac Safety: Assessment Methodologies for Noncardiac Drugs in Discovery, Development, and Postmarketing Surveillance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
MacKenzie G, Peng D (eds) (2014) Statistical Modelling in Biostatistics and Bioinformatics: Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Tahir A, MacDonell S, Buchan J (2015) A Study of the Relationship Between Class Testability and Runtime Properties. In: Maciaszek LA, Filipe J (eds) Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering: 9th International Conference, ENASE 2014, Lisbon, Portugal, April 28-30, 2014. Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 63–78

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Small-scale Forestry.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Single-Celled Organism Smashes and Rebuilds Its Own Genome Before Sex Each Time. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) High Risk Series: Student Financial Aid. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clendening RJ (2009) A structured methodology for unifying functional analysis with systems analysis to enhance system behavior knowledge. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B (2015) $25,000 Fine Proposed in Taxi’s Snub of Family. New York Times A21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Miller 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Miller 2007; Smith and Yard 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith and Yard 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Sakurai et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmall-scale Forestry
AbbreviationSmall Scale Forest.
ISSN (print)1873-7617
ISSN (online)1873-7854

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