How to format your references using the Small-scale Forestry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Small-scale Forestry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Omelon S (2004) Graduate journal: conference survival. Nature 427:570
A journal article with 2 authors
Alekseyenko AA, Kuroda MI (2004) Molecular biology. Filling gaps in genome organization. Science 303:1148–1149
A journal article with 3 authors
Bao H, Yu S, Tong DQ (2010) Massive volcanic SO(2) oxidation and sulphate aerosol deposition in Cenozoic North America. Nature 465:909–912
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Feely RA, Sabine CL, Hernandez-Ayon JM, et al (2008) Evidence for upwelling of corrosive “acidified” water onto the continental shelf. Science 320:1490–1492

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lad BK, Shrivastava D, Kulkarni MS (2016) Machine Tool Reliability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Stillwell J (2005) The Four Pillars of Geometry. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Ferraro R (2007) Geometric Structure of Space-Time. In: Ferraro R (ed) Einstein’s Space-Time: An Introduction to Special and General Relativity. Springer, New York, NY, pp 97–116

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Small-scale Forestry.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Billions Of Bizarre Blue Animals Wash Ashore On The West Coast. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Mainframe Procurements: Statistics Showing How and What the Government is Acquiring. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clark DK (2009) Professional values: A study of education and experience in nursing students and nurses. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Powell M (2017) You’re No. 1 (2, 3, 4, 5, 6 ... ). New York Times B8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Omelon 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Omelon 2004; Alekseyenko and Kuroda 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Alekseyenko and Kuroda 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Feely et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleSmall-scale Forestry
AbbreviationSmall Scale Forest.
ISSN (print)1873-7617
ISSN (online)1873-7854

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