How to format your references using the Drug Testing and Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drug Testing and Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. Nogrady. Immunotherapy: Chemical tricks. Nature, 2014, 513, S10-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Saul, L. Vinnik. Earth science: Mantle deformation or processing artefact? Nature, 2003, 422, 136; discussion 136.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Browne, A. Tunnacliffe, A. Burnell. Anhydrobiosis: plant desiccation gene found in a nematode. Nature, 2002, 416, 38.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N. K. Logothetis, J. Pauls, M. Augath, T. Trinath, A. Oeltermann. Neurophysiological investigation of the basis of the fMRI signal. Nature, 2001, 412, 150–157.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Analyzing and Managing the Security Vulnerabilities of Fixed Chemical Sites, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2003.
An edited book
A. J. Brooks, J. Clasper, M. Midwinter, T. J. Hodgetts, P. F. Mahoney, Eds. . Ryan’s Ballistic Trauma: A Practical Guide, Springer, London, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Ribes, P. Iannarelli, R. F. Duarte. Writing a Manuscript, in English for Biomedical Scientists, (Eds: P. Iannarelli, R.F. Duarte), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009, pp. 74–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drug Testing and Analysis.

Blog post
D. Andrew. “A Sixth Sense? How We Can Tell That Eyes Are Watching Us,” Available at:, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Loans: Selected Characteristics of Schools in Two Major Federal Loan Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T.-W. D. Liu. Isolation and Characterization of Pco-1, Which Encodes a Regulatory Protein That Controls Purine Degradation in Neurospora Crassa, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2003.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Qiu. On What He Really Said, and Whom He Is Blaming for It. New York Times, 2017, A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDrug Testing and Analysis
AbbreviationDrug Test. Anal.
ISSN (print)1942-7603
ISSN (online)1942-7611
ScopeAnalytical Chemistry
Environmental Chemistry
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles