How to format your references using the Drug Testing and Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drug Testing and Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
F. Albarède. Rogue mantle helium and neon. Science, 2008, 319, 943–945.
A journal article with 2 authors
F. L. W. Takken, W. I. L. Tameling. To nibble at plant resistance proteins. Science, 2009, 324, 744–746.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Uyanik, H. Hayashi, K. Ishihara. High-turnover hypoiodite catalysis for asymmetric synthesis of tocopherols. Science, 2014, 345, 291–294.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N. Yi, B. Huang, L. Dong, X. Quan, F. Hong, P. Tao, C. Song, W. Shang, T. Deng. Temperature-induced coalescence of colliding binary droplets on superhydrophobic surface. Sci. Rep., 2014, 4, 4303.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. W. Rogers. Concise Physical Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
M. Dong, J. Lin, X. Tang, Eds. . Chinese Lexical Semantics: 17th Workshop, CLSW 2016, Singapore, Singapore, May 20–22, 2016, Revised Selected Papers, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Cavallaro. Regional Geography, in Italian Regionalism: Between Unitary Traditions and Federal Processes: Investigating Italy’s Form of State, (Ed: S. Mangiameli), Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014, pp. 81–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drug Testing and Analysis.

Blog post
E. Andrew. “Stark IPCC Climate Report Shows The Time For Talking Is Over,” Available at:, 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Congress Should Clearly Define the National Weather Service’s Role To Provide Specialized Weather Services, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Francom. Análisis Sociolingüístico de Eleccion de Lengua En Encuentros de Servicio: Una Perspectiva Etnográfica y Experimental, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon. U.S. Olympian Explains Positive Test. New York Times, 2014, B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDrug Testing and Analysis
AbbreviationDrug Test. Anal.
ISSN (print)1942-7603
ISSN (online)1942-7611
ScopeAnalytical Chemistry
Environmental Chemistry
Pharmaceutical Science

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