How to format your references using the Drug Testing and Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drug Testing and Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Davis. Urban planning: Monumental knock-offs. Nature, 2013, 494, 427–428.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Norenzayan, A. F. Shariff. The origin and evolution of religious prosociality. Science, 2008, 322, 58–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Zhao, L. Kong, H. Qu. A systems biology approach to identify intelligence quotient score-related genomic regions, and pathways relevant to potential therapeutic treatments. Sci. Rep., 2014, 4, 4176.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. J. Hornbaker, S. J. Kahng, S. Misra, B. W. Smith, A. T. Johnson, E. J. Mele, D. E. Luzzi, A. Yazdani. Mapping the one-dimensional electronic States of nanotube peapod structures. Science, 2002, 295, 828–831.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Huddleston. Android® Fully Loaded, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
A. V. Kolobov. Chalcogenides: Metastability and Phase Change Phenomena, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Zeng, X. Li. Artifact Removal in EEG Recordings, in Signal Processing in Neuroscience, (Ed: X. Li), Springer, Singapore, 2016, pp. 77–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drug Testing and Analysis.

Blog post
B. Taub. “This Is What Bronze Age Women Looked Like,” Available at:, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information on Prime Sponsor CETA Expenditures Related to Membership Organizations, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. De Anda. Factors That Contribute to the Stigma of Mental Illness, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Leland, S. M. Nir. The Village Voice, Keeper of Downtown Cool, Will Shed Its Print Edition. New York Times, 2017, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDrug Testing and Analysis
AbbreviationDrug Test. Anal.
ISSN (print)1942-7603
ISSN (online)1942-7611
ScopeAnalytical Chemistry
Environmental Chemistry
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles