How to format your references using the Drug Testing and Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drug Testing and Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Wunsch. Moon, tides and climate. Nature, 2000, 405, 743–744.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. J. Benkovic, S. Hammes-Schiffer. A perspective on enzyme catalysis. Science, 2003, 301, 1196–1202.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y. Zhong, L. Zhang, D. Su. Collaborations tailored for bioinformatics projects. Science, 2000, 290, 2074a.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Nemazee, A. Gavin, K. Hoebe, B. Beutler. Immunology: Toll-like receptors and antibody responses. Nature, 2006, 441, E4; discussion E4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Albalate, W. Minker. Semi-Supervised and Unsupervised Machine Learning, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
B. Shen. Nonlinear Stochastic Systems with Incomplete Information: Filtering and Control, Springer, London, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Kilian, M. Liesenfeld. What is so Difficult about Self-Scanning? A Comparative Study of three Self-Service Technologies for Retailing, in European Retail Research: 2013, Volume 27, Issue I, (Eds: H. Schramm-Klein, T. Foscht, D. Morschett, T. Rudolph, P. Schnedlitz, B. Swoboda), Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden, 2014, pp. 79–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drug Testing and Analysis.

Blog post
S. Luntz. “Blue Whales Travel Enormous Distances,” Available at:, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control Modernization: Status of the Current Program and Planning for the Next Generation Air Transportation System, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. M. Estrin. Individual Doubles: A Look at Twinship and Attachment Theory, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse. Conflicts for Justices Halt Appeal in Apartheid Case. New York Times, 2008, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDrug Testing and Analysis
AbbreviationDrug Test. Anal.
ISSN (print)1942-7603
ISSN (online)1942-7611
ScopeAnalytical Chemistry
Environmental Chemistry
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles