How to format your references using the Drug Resistance Updates citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drug Resistance Updates. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lederman, L., 2007. The God particle et al. Nature 448, 310–312.
A journal article with 2 authors
McNeill, J.R., Winiwarter, V., 2004. Breaking the sod: humankind, history, and soil. Science 304, 1627–1629.
A journal article with 3 authors
Henrich, J., Heine, S.J., Norenzayan, A., 2010. Most people are not WEIRD. Nature 466, 29.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Iwase, T., Tajima, A., Sugimoto, S., Okuda, K.-I., Hironaka, I., Kamata, Y., Takada, K., Mizunoe, Y., 2013. A simple assay for measuring catalase activity: a visual approach. Sci. Rep. 3, 3081.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zanotto, E.D., 2013. Crystals in Glass. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Spanagel, R., Mann, K.F. (Eds.), 2005. Drugs for Relapse Prevention of Alcoholism, Milestones in Drug Therapy MDT. Birkhäuser, Basel.
A chapter in an edited book
Merz, C., 2010. Incubating Micro Enterprises in Rural South Africa – The Use Case of Virtual Buying Cooperatives, in: Picot, A., Lorenz, J. (Eds.), ICT for the Next Five Billion People: Information and Communication for Sustainable Development. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 35–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drug Resistance Updates.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Fossil of Earliest Bird Pollinator Found [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Federal Family Education Loan Program: Increased Department of Education Oversight of Lender and School Activities Needed to Help Ensure Program Compliance (No. GAO-07-750). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miller, C., 2010. Assembly and analysis of an Sp185/333 gene cluster from the purple sea urchin: Putative evidence for microsatellite-mediated gene and segmental duplication (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B., 2016. Fitzpatrick’s Steady Hand Is Upended by a Late Blow. New York Times D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lederman, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Lederman, 2007; McNeill and Winiwarter, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McNeill and Winiwarter, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Iwase et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleDrug Resistance Updates
AbbreviationDrug Resist. Updat.
ISSN (print)1368-7646
ScopeCancer Research
Infectious Diseases
Pharmacology (medical)

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