How to format your references using the Diversity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diversity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Frenking, G. Another noble gas conquered. Nature 2000, 406, 836–837.
A journal article with 2 authors
Keefer, D.K.; Larsen, M.C. Geology. Assessing landslide hazards. Science 2007, 316, 1136–1138.
A journal article with 3 authors
Müller, K.; Faeh, C.; Diederich, F. Fluorine in pharmaceuticals: looking beyond intuition. Science 2007, 317, 1881–1886.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Soon, F.-F.; Ng, L.-M.; Zhou, X.E.; West, G.M.; Kovach, A.; Tan, M.H.E.; Suino-Powell, K.M.; He, Y.; Xu, Y.; Chalmers, M.J.; et al. Molecular mimicry regulates ABA signaling by SnRK2 kinases and PP2C phosphatases. Science 2012, 335, 85–88.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopkins, B.R. Fundraising Law Made Easy; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2009; ISBN 9781118386347.
An edited book
Ghosh, A. Introduction to Micromechanisms and Microactuators; Corves, B., Ed.; Mechanisms and Machine Science; Springer India: New Delhi, 2015; Vol. 28; ISBN 9788132221432.
A chapter in an edited book
Namera, A.; Yashiki, M. Pretreatments of human specimens. In Drugs and Poisons in Humans: A Handbook of Practical Analysis; Watanabe, K., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005; pp. 25–31 ISBN 9783540222774.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diversity.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Boldly Going Into Space for 1,000 Days Presents a Series of Health Risks Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Pipeline Safety: Systematic Process Needed to Evaluate Outcomes of Research and Development Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2003;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Migues, K.P. A Qualitative Exploration of Retention of Experienced Teachers: Why Do They Stay? Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. Taking Life to the Edge, And Spins and Jumps, Too. New York Times 2002, D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiversity
AbbreviationDiversity (Basel)
ISSN (online)1424-2818
ScopeAgricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
Ecological Modelling
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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