How to format your references using the Diversity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diversity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pockley, P. Commission Plots Transgenic Future. Nature 2001, 412, 573.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tao, Z.-Y.; Fan, Y.-X. Orthogonality Breaking Induces Extraordinary Single-Mode Transparency in an Elaborate Waveguide with Wall Corrugations. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7092.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whiting, M.F.; Bradler, S.; Maxwell, T. Loss and Recovery of Wings in Stick Insects. Nature 2003, 421, 264–267.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bochukova, E.G.; Huang, N.; Keogh, J.; Henning, E.; Purmann, C.; Blaszczyk, K.; Saeed, S.; Hamilton-Shield, J.; Clayton-Smith, J.; O’Rahilly, S.; et al. Large, Rare Chromosomal Deletions Associated with Severe Early-Onset Obesity. Nature 2010, 463, 666–670.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Charalambides, C.A. Combinatorial Methods in Discrete Distributions: Charalambides/Combinatorial; Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471733188.
An edited book
The Art of Science: From Perspective Drawing to Quantum Randomness; Lupacchini, R., Angelini, A., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; ISBN 9783319021102.
A chapter in an edited book
Poppe, R.; van Delden, R.; Moreno, A.; Reidsma, D. Interactive Playgrounds for Children. In Playful User Interfaces: Interfaces that Invite Social and Physical Interaction; Nijholt, A., Ed.; Gaming Media and Social Effects; Springer: Singapore, 2014; pp. 99–118 ISBN 9789814560955.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diversity.

Blog post
Hale, T. Watch Indian Locals Save A Leopard From Drowning (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Truck Safety: The Safety of Longer Combination Vehicles Is Unknown; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1992;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zolfaghari, S.S. The Relationship between Folic Acid, Vitamin B12, and Vitamin B6 Intakes and Depression in Women Who Use Hormonal Oral Contraceptives. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L.F. A Symbol of Carefree, Innocent Fun? Not in Oyster Bay. New York Times 2006, 14LI10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiversity
AbbreviationDiversity (Basel)
ISSN (online)1424-2818
ScopeAgricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
Ecological Modelling
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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