How to format your references using the Diversity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diversity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Drmanac, R. Medicine. The ultimate genetic test. Science 2012, 336, 1110–1112.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dunbar, R.I.M.; Shultz, S. Evolution in the social brain. Science 2007, 317, 1344–1347.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wieman, C.E.; Adams, W.K.; Perkins, K.K. PHYSICS. PhET: simulations that enhance learning. Science 2008, 322, 682–683.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Goulielmakis, E.; Loh, Z.-H.; Wirth, A.; Santra, R.; Rohringer, N.; Yakovlev, V.S.; Zherebtsov, S.; Pfeifer, T.; Azzeer, A.M.; Kling, M.F.; et al. Real-time observation of valence electron motion. Nature 2010, 466, 739–743.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lamperti, J.W. Probability: A Survey of the Mathematical Theory; Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 1996; ISBN 9781118150443.
An edited book
Keller, J.K. Improving GIS-based Wildlife-Habitat Analysis; Smith, C.R., Ed.; SpringerBriefs in Ecology; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; ISBN 9783319096070.
A chapter in an edited book
Beyer, C. Noematic Sinn. In Meaning and Language: Phenomenological Perspectives; Mattens, F., Ed.; Phaenomenologica; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2008; pp. 75–88 ISBN 9781402083303.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diversity.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. Check Out The Ingenious Way This Seal Manages To Avoid Hungry Orcas Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Oversight of DOJ Funds for Recreational Activities; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2010;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ku, Y. Dealing with historical issues in Japan and Germany: Ruling coalitions, transnational activism, and conservative reaction. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grisham, J. John Grisham’s Suggestions for Writing Popular Fiction. New York Times 2017, BR31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiversity
AbbreviationDiversity (Basel)
ISSN (online)1424-2818
ScopeAgricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
Ecological Modelling
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles