How to format your references using the Diversity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diversity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blanke, S.R. Cell Biology. Expanding Functionality within the Looking-Glass Universe. Science 2009, 325, 1505–1506.
A journal article with 2 authors
DeVore, N.M.; Scott, E.E. Structures of Cytochrome P450 17A1 with Prostate Cancer Drugs Abiraterone and TOK-001. Nature 2012, 482, 116–119.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alley, R.B.; Fahnestock, M.; Joughin, I. Climate Change. Understanding Glacier Flow in Changing Times. Science 2008, 322, 1061–1062.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hooper, L.V.; Wong, M.H.; Thelin, A.; Hansson, L.; Falk, P.G.; Gordon, J.I. Molecular Analysis of Commensal Host-Microbial Relationships in the Intestine. Science 2001, 291, 881–884.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kunz, R.G. Environmental Calculations; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2009; ISBN 9780470925386.
An edited book
Internet and Distributed Computing Systems: 5th International Conference, IDCS 2012, Wuyishan, Fujian, China, November 21-23, 2012. Proceedings; Xiang, Y., Pathan, M., Tao, X., Wang, H., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; Vol. 7646; ISBN 9783642348822.
A chapter in an edited book
Nolan, S.J.; Rees, S.; Rushall, C. Breaking Barriers: Overcoming Anxieties in Practical Science. In Widening Participation, Higher Education and Non-Traditional Students: Supporting Transitions through Foundation Programmes; Marshall, C.A., Nolan, S.J., Newton, D.P., Eds.; Palgrave Macmillan UK: London, 2016; pp. 73–88 ISBN 9781349949687.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diversity.

Blog post
Fang, J. Southern California Mite Is the Fastest Animal on Earth Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Space Acquisitions: DOD Poised to Enhance Space Capabilities, but Persistent Challenges Remain in Developing Space Systems; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2010;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hall, D. Resistance, Reluctance, and Revelation: Examining Faculty Perceptions of Online Learning Options at a Faith-Based University. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. Fierce Debt Puts Pensions at Risk In Puerto Rico. New York Times 2012, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiversity
AbbreviationDiversity (Basel)
ISSN (online)1424-2818
ScopeAgricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
Ecological Modelling
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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