How to format your references using the Diversity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diversity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huisman, J. Comment on “Patterns of Diversity in Marine Phytoplankton.” Science 2010, 329, 512; author reply 512.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yang, W.Y.; Gruebele, M. Folding at the Speed Limit. Nature 2003, 423, 193–197.
A journal article with 3 authors
Watanabe, K.N.; Taeb, M.; Okusu, H. Biotechnology. Japanese Controversies over Transgenic Crop Regulation. Science 2004, 305, 1572.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schwab, K.; Henriksen, E.A.; Worlock, J.M.; Roukes, M.L. Measurement of the Quantum of Thermal Conductance. Nature 2000, 404, 974–977.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kerzner, H. Project Management 2.0; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781119020042.
An edited book
Hughes, G. Sjögren’s Syndrome in Clinical Practice; Sangle, S., Bowman, S., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; ISBN 9783319060583.
A chapter in an edited book
Dearricott, O. Lectures on n-Sasakian Manifolds. In Geometry of Manifolds with Non-negative Sectional Curvature: Editors: Rafael Herrera, Luis Hernández-Lamoneda; Galaz-García, F., Kennard, L., Searle, C., Weingart, G., Ziller, W., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Mathematics; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 57–109 ISBN 9783319063720.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diversity.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Physicists Think They May Have Accidentally Discovered Dark Matter (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Year 2000 Computing Crisis: National Credit Union Administration’s Efforts to Ensure Credit Union Systems Are Year 2000 Compliant; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alameddine, A. Perceptions of Executives from Seven Selected Companies of the Use of Social Media in Marketing Practices. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lohr, S.; Alderman, L. The Fallout From a Global Cyberattack: ‘A Battle We’Re Fighting Every Day.’ New York Times 2017, A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiversity
AbbreviationDiversity (Basel)
ISSN (online)1424-2818
ScopeAgricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
Ecological Modelling
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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