How to format your references using the Distributed and Parallel Databases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Distributed and Parallel Databases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hu, W.: Ringing in the new cosmology. Nature. 404, 939–940 (2000)
A journal article with 2 authors
Tong, F., Engel, S.A.: Interocular rivalry revealed in the human cortical blind-spot representation. Nature. 411, 195–199 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Thompson, J.K., Peterson, M.R., Freeman, R.D.: Single-neuron activity and tissue oxygenation in the cerebral cortex. Science. 299, 1070–1072 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, J., Bartesaghi, A., Borgnia, M.J., Sapiro, G., Subramaniam, S.: Molecular architecture of native HIV-1 gp120 trimers. Nature. 455, 109–113 (2008)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Douglas, J., Noy, E.A.: Building Surveys and Reports. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2010)
An edited book
Al-Tubaikh, J.A. ed: Internal Medicine: An Illustrated Radiological Guide. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2010)
A chapter in an edited book
Losoncz, A.: Spiritual Motivation in Management. In: Zsolnai, L. (ed.) Spirituality and Ethics in Management. pp. 75–94. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Distributed and Parallel Databases.

Blog post
Hamilton, K.: Why Sad Songs Say So Much (To Some People, But Not Others),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Space Station: Cost Control Problems Are Worsening. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1997)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hardison, A.: Achieving Literacy Excellence through Identifying and Utilizing High Yield Strategies, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K.: World Briefing | Asia: Malaysia: Warplanes From Russia, (2003)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDistributed and Parallel Databases
AbbreviationDistrib. Parallel Databases
ISSN (print)0926-8782
ISSN (online)1573-7578
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Information Systems
Information Systems and Management

Other styles