How to format your references using the Distributed and Parallel Databases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Distributed and Parallel Databases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kondoh, M.: Foraging adaptation and the relationship between food-web complexity and stability. Science. 299, 1388–1391 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Arlot-Bonnemains, Y., Prigent, C.: Cell cycle. A trigger for centrosome duplication. Science. 295, 455–456 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Arnold, K.E., Owens, I.P.F., Marshall, N.J.: Fluorescent signaling in parrots. Science. 295, 92 (2002)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Meier, F., Zhou, L., Wiebe, J., Wiesendanger, R.: Revealing magnetic interactions from single-atom magnetization curves. Science. 320, 82–86 (2008)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Norwitz, E.R., Belfort, M.A., Saade, G.R., Miller, H.: Obstetric Clinical Algorithms: Management and Evidence. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2010)
An edited book
Taft, P.: Violence in Nigeria: Patterns and Trends. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Launer, L.J.: Diabetes and the Brain – An Epidemiologic Perspective. In: Craft, S. and Christen, Y. (eds.) Diabetes, Insulin and Alzheimer’s Disease. pp. 73–80. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2010)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Distributed and Parallel Databases.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Stem Cells Regenerate Monkey Hearts,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Customs Service Modernization: Actions Initiated to Correct ACE Management and Technical Weaknesses. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1999)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yao, D.: In situ activity of NAC11-7 roseobacters in coastal waters off the Chesapeake Bay based on ftsZ expression, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L.: Nassau Comptroller Warns County on Finances, (2007)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDistributed and Parallel Databases
AbbreviationDistrib. Parallel Databases
ISSN (print)0926-8782
ISSN (online)1573-7578
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Information Systems
Information Systems and Management

Other styles