How to format your references using the Displays citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Displays. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
V. Hughes, Microbiome: Cultural differences, Nature. 492 (2012) S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Ahlund, M. Andersson, Female ducks can double their reproduction, Nature. 414 (2001) 600–601.
A journal article with 3 authors
G.L. Willis, C. Moore, S.M. Armstrong, Parkinson’s disease, lights and melanocytes: looking beyond the retina, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3921.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.R. Huh, M.W.L. Leung, P. Huang, D.A. Ryan, M.R. Krout, R.R.V. Malapaka, J. Chow, N. Manel, M. Ciofani, S.V. Kim, A. Cuesta, F.R. Santori, J.J. Lafaille, H.E. Xu, D.Y. Gin, F. Rastinejad, D.R. Littman, Digoxin and its derivatives suppress TH17 cell differentiation by antagonizing RORγt activity, Nature. 472 (2011) 486–490.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.J. Filla, H.E. Brown, Prospect Research for Fundraisers, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
J. Miller, C.G. Le Prell, L. Rybak, eds., Free Radicals in ENT Pathology, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Dozier, E. Meade, K. Bernard, Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up: An Intervention for Parents at Risk of Maltreating Their Infants and Toddlers, in: S. Timmer, A. Urquiza (Eds.), Evidence-Based Approaches for the Treatment of Maltreated Children: Considering Core Components and Treatment Effectiveness, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014: pp. 43–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Displays.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Great Barrier Reef Bleaching Is Just One Symptom Of Ecosystem Collapse Across Australia, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Rail Safety: The Federal Railroad Administration Is Better Targeting Safety Risks, but Needs to Assess Results to Determine the Impact of Its Efforts, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.J. Alimo, From dialogue to action: The development of White racial allies, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.M. Novick, Authentic Mexican Flavors for Summer, New York Times. (2015) LI8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDisplays
ISSN (print)0141-9382
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Human-Computer Interaction
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Other styles