How to format your references using the Displays citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Displays. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Stokstad, SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY: Homegrown Quartz Muddies the Water, Science. 289 (2000) 1449–1451.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.P. Smith, D.A.T. Harper, Earth science. Causes of the Cambrian explosion, Science. 341 (2013) 1355–1356.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.L. Suvà, N. Riggi, B.E. Bernstein, Epigenetic reprogramming in cancer, Science. 339 (2013) 1567–1570.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L.J. Prins, F. De Jong, P. Timmerman, D.N. Reinhoudt, An enantiomerically pure hydrogen-bonded assembly, Nature. 408 (2000) 181–184.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.-C. Diels, L. Arissian, Lasers, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2011.
An edited book
A. Casimiro, R. de Lemos, C. Gacek, eds., Architecting Dependable Systems VII, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Yu, L. Lin, F. Wang, J. Wang, M. Wang, Improving Recommendations with Collaborative Factors, in: F. Li, G. Li, S.-W. Hwang, B. Yao, Z. Zhang (Eds.), Web-Age Information Management: 15th International Conference, WAIM 2014, Macau, China, June 16-18, 2014. Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 30–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Displays.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, The Size Of Rosetta’s Comet Relative To European Cities, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Rulemaking: Agencies’ Use of Information Technology to Facilitate Public Participation, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.S. Mazyck, Leadership behavior and teacher attrition: A qualitative phenomenological inquiry of job satisfaction, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.P. Rubin, 59 Missiles Don’t Equal a Foreign Policy, New York Times. (2017) SR2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDisplays
ISSN (print)0141-9382
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Human-Computer Interaction
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Other styles