How to format your references using the Displays citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Displays. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.F. Service, Condensed matter physics. Inverse Doppler demonstration ends a 60-year quest, Science. 302 (2003) 1489.
A journal article with 2 authors
V.A. Klyachko, M.B. Jackson, Capacitance steps and fusion pores of small and large-dense-core vesicles in nerve terminals, Nature. 418 (2002) 89–92.
A journal article with 3 authors
E.G. Lebrun, N.T. Jones, L.E. Gilbert, Chemical warfare among invaders: a detoxification interaction facilitates an ant invasion, Science. 343 (2014) 1014–1017.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.J. Gegear, A. Casselman, S. Waddell, S.M. Reppert, Cryptochrome mediates light-dependent magnetosensitivity in Drosophila, Nature. 454 (2008) 1014–1018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.A.C. Broekaert, Analytical Atomic Spectrometry with Flames and Plasmas, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2005.
An edited book
T. Takahashi, ed., Radiological Issues for Fukushima’s Revitalized Future, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
I. Bárány, A. Hubard, J. Jerónimo, Slicing Convex Sets and Measures by a Hyperplane, in: R. Pollack, J. Pach, J.E. Goodman (Eds.), Twentieth Anniversary Volume: Discrete & Computational Geometry, Springer, New York, NY, 2009: pp. 1–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Displays.

Blog post
J. Davis, Fifty Years Ago, The Sugar Industry Was Funding Research Downplaying Its Effect On Health, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Early Learning and Child Care: Federal Funds Support Multiple Programs with Similar Goals, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. Robertson, Forging a New World Nationalism: Ancient Mexico in United States art and visual culture, 1933–1945, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, I.O.C. Opens Inquiry Into Resale Of Tickets, New York Times. (2012) D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDisplays
ISSN (print)0141-9382
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Human-Computer Interaction
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Other styles