How to format your references using the Displays citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Displays. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
R.F. Service, American Chemical Society meeting. Science invades the Magic Kingdom, Science. 296 (2002) 462–463.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
S. Hågvar, M. Ohlson, Ancient carbon from a melting glacier gives high 14C age in living pioneer invertebrates, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2820.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
L. McAlary, J.J. Yerbury, J.A. Aquilina, Glutathionylation potentiates benign superoxide dismutase 1 variants to the toxic forms associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3275.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
[1]
R. Burioni, M. Casartelli, M. di Volo, R. Livi, A. Vezzani, Average synaptic activity and neural networks topology: a global inverse problem, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4336.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
S.K. Gupta, Modern Hydrology and Sustainable Water Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2010.
An edited book
[1]
T. Maeno, Y. Sawatani, T. Hara, eds., Serviceology for Designing the Future: Selected and Edited Papers of the 2nd International Conference on Serviceology, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
R.P. Bateman, G.A. Matthews, F.R. Hall, Ground-based application equipment, in: L.A. Lacey, H.K. Kaya (Eds.), Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology: Application and Evaluation of Pathogens for Control of Insects and Other Invertebrate Pests, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2007: pp. 73–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Displays.

Blog post
[1]
E. Andrew, Watch A Giant Water Balloon Explode With A Man Sitting Inside It, IFLScience. (2015). https://www.iflscience.com/physics/giant-water-balloon-explosion-man-sitting-inside/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office, Review of Geomagnetic Activities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
W.O. Crosby, ATI v. Colorado: How the Commerce Clause Provides Guidance at the Confluence of Energy, Environmental, and Constitutional Law, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
B. Brantley, A Storyteller’s Private Dystopias, New York Times. (2017) C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDisplays
AbbreviationDisplays
ISSN (print)0141-9382
ScopeHardware and Architecture
Human-Computer Interaction
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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