How to format your references using the Research Integrity and Peer Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research Integrity and Peer Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Michaels AF. Ocean science. Highly active eddies. Science. 2007;316:992–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Marcus DM, Grollman AP. Science and government. Review for NCCAM is overdue. Science. 2006;313:301–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Godfrey DI, Pellicci DG, Smyth MJ. Immunology. The elusive NKT cell antigen--is the search over? Science. 2004;306:1687–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Alexander CMO, Grossman JN, Ebel DS, Ciesla FJ. The formation conditions of chondrules and chondrites. Science. 2008;320:1617–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sauter M. 3G, 4G and Beyond-Bringing Networks, Devices and the Web Together. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1. Machado C, Davim JP, editors. MBA: Theory and Application of Business and Management Principles. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Stolzenburg J-U, Liatsikos EN, Schwalenberg T, Häfner T, Do M, Orth S, et al. Miscellaneous. In: Stolzenburg J-U, Türk IA, Liatsikos EN, editors. Laparoscopic and Robot-Assisted Surgery in Urology: Atlas of Standard Procedures. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 363–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research Integrity and Peer Review.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Were Beethoven’s Masterpieces Influenced by a Cardiac Arrhythmia? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Sep. Report No.: 113316.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Umstead HG. Determining the Value of Outdoor Adventure Education for Educational Leaders [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Soble J. Airbag Crisis Sends Takata To Its Demise. New York Times. 2017 Jun 26;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch Integrity and Peer Review
AbbreviationRes. Integr. Peer Rev.
ISSN (online)2058-8615

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