How to format your references using the Research Integrity and Peer Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research Integrity and Peer Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bejan A. Maxwell’s demons everywhere: evolving design as the arrow of time. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4017.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ganachaud A, Wunsch C. Improved estimates of global ocean circulation, heat transport and mixing from hydrographic data. Nature. 2000;408:453–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. van Groenigen KJ, Osenberg CW, Hungate BA. Increased soil emissions of potent greenhouse gases under increased atmospheric CO2. Nature. 2011;475:214–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ferrant S, Caballero Y, Perrin J, Gascoin S, Dewandel B, Aulong S, et al. Projected impacts of climate change on farmers’ extraction of groundwater from crystalline aquifers in South India. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3697.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Steele D. From Therapist to Coach. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Proietti M, Seki H, editors. Logic-Based Program Synthesis and Transformation: 24th International Symposium, LOPSTR 2014, Canterbury, UK, September 9-11, 2014. Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Manton KG, Akushevich I, Kravchenko J. Stochastic Methods of Analysis. In: Akushevich I, Kravchenko J, editors. Cancer Mortality and Morbidity Patterns in the US Population: An Interdisciplinary Approach. New York, NY: Springer; 2009. p. 191–216.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research Integrity and Peer Review.

Blog post
1. Hale T. The Weather Channel Shuts Down Breitbart For Misleading Climate Change Article. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Should the Bureau of Indian Affairs Continue To Provide Educational Services to Indian Children? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Apr. Report No.: CED-80-72.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Pederson HM. Decreasing blame and building therapeutic alliance: Clarifying central change processes in functional family therapy [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly S. The Canadiens; and Soul Hockey No Politics on Ice Flyers a Different Breed. New York Times. 1978 Apr 9;SportsS2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch Integrity and Peer Review
AbbreviationRes. Integr. Peer Rev.
ISSN (online)2058-8615

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