How to format your references using the Research Integrity and Peer Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research Integrity and Peer Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Fiete GA. Physics. How do you want that insulator? Science. 2011;332:546–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Szule JA, Coorssen JR. Comment on “Transmembrane segments of syntaxin line the fusion pore of Ca2+-triggered exocytosis.” Science. 2004;306:813; author reply 813.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Xin H, Liu Q, Li B. Non-contact fiber-optical trapping of motile bacteria: dynamics observation and energy estimation. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6576.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Beaulieu S, Comby A, Clergerie A, Caillat J, Descamps D, Dudovich N, et al. Attosecond-resolved photoionization of chiral molecules. Science. 2017;358:1288–94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Stefanoiu D, Borne P, Popescu D, Filip FG, El Kamel A. Optimization in Engineering Sciences: Approximate and Metaheuristic Methods. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Lebow RN, editor. Richard Ned Lebow: Key Texts in Political Psychology and International Relations Theory. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Brandt P. Findings of market basket monitoring. In: Brandt P, editor. Reports on Food Safety 2005: Food Monitoring. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2007. p. 13–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research Integrity and Peer Review.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Time To Take A Sick Day: Working When Ill Is Bad For You – And Your Company [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Review of the High Speed Antiradiation Missile Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981 Feb. Report No.: C-MASAD-81–7.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Garyan D. Converging origins: Never forget what happened in the future [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. (nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Summer Camp For Budding Thieves. New York Times. 2004 Jul 23;A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch Integrity and Peer Review
AbbreviationRes. Integr. Peer Rev.
ISSN (online)2058-8615

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