How to format your references using the Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sanchez, P. A. (2009). A smarter way to combat hunger. Nature, 458(7235), 148.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wray, G. A., & Babbitt, C. C. (2008). Genetics. Enhancing gene regulation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5894), 1300–1301.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mashchenko, S., Couchman, H. M. P., & Wadsley, J. (2006). The removal of cusps from galaxy centres by stellar feedback in the early Universe. Nature, 442(7102), 539–542.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rosales, T., Nie, Z., Kapoor, V., Casellas, R., Jr, Knutson, J. R., & Levens, D. (2013). Partition of Myc into immobile vs. mobile complexes within nuclei. Scientific Reports, 3, 1953.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aubrey, S. B. (2010). The Profitable Hobby Farm. Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Gaïti, D. (Ed.). (2007). Network Control and Engineering for QoS, Security and Mobility, IV: Fourth IFIP International Conference on Network Control and Engineering for QoS, Security and Mobility, Lannion, France, November 14–18, 2005 (Vol. 229). Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Scheumann, M., Rabesandratana, A., & Zimmermann, E. (2007). Predation, Communication, and Cognition in Lemurs. In S. L. Gursky & K. A. I. Nekaris (Eds.), Primate Anti-Predator Strategies (pp. 100–126). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 19). Microorganisms From Earth Could Survive On Mars. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Financial Audit: The Federal Communications Commission’s Fiscal Year 2004 Management Representation Letter on Its Financial Statements (GAO-05-608R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sullivan, T. J. (2017). Molecular Ecology, Disease Ecology, and Candidate Genes for Pathogen Resistance in the Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2016, October 5). Once Damaged Goods, Mets Reliever Returns to the Top Shelf. New York Times, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sanchez, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Sanchez, 2009; Wray & Babbitt, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wray & Babbitt, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Mashchenko et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Rosales et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism
ISSN (print)1833-5330
ISSN (online)2159-5364
Political Science and International Relations

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