How to format your references using the Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Panksepp, J. (2005). Psychology. Beyond a joke: from animal laughter to human joy? Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5718), 62–63.
A journal article with 2 authors
Emery, N. J., & Clayton, N. S. (2001). Effects of experience and social context on prospective caching strategies by scrub jays. Nature, 414(6862), 443–446.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hägglund, C., Grätzel, M., & Kasemo, B. (2003). Comment on “efficient photochemical water splitting by a chemically modified n-TiO2” (II). Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5640), 1673; discussion 1673.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lin, H., Van Wagner, E., Freeman, B. D., Toy, L. G., & Gupta, R. P. (2006). Plasticization-enhanced hydrogen purification using polymeric membranes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5761), 639–642.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fleming, P., & Lee, R. (2016). Orthodontic Functional Appliances. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Domínguez-Rodrigo, M. (2007). Deconstructing Olduvai: A Taphonomic Study of the Bed I Sites (R. B. Egido & C. P. Egeland, Eds.). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Marinč, M., & Vlahu, R. (2012). General Issues on the Structure of Banking Industry. In R. Vlahu (Ed.), The Economics of Bank Bankruptcy Law (pp. 85–96). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, October 21). Rare Double Star System Seen In Final Death Throes Before It Explodes. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Department of Education: Information on Consolidation Opportunities and Student Aid (T-HEHS-95-130). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Phongprasert, A. V. (2010). MSW students’ perceived knowledge and perceptions of effectiveness of the child welfare system [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Packer, G. (2015, July 5). Revolutionary Roads. New York Times, BR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Panksepp, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Emery & Clayton, 2001; Panksepp, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Emery & Clayton, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Hägglund et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lin et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism
ISSN (print)1833-5330
ISSN (online)2159-5364
Political Science and International Relations

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