How to format your references using the Diseases of the Esophagus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diseases of the Esophagus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wain-Hobson S. H5N1 viral-engineering dangers will not go away. Nature. 2013 Mar 28;495(7442):411.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sullenger BA, Gilboa E. Emerging clinical applications of RNA. Nature. 2002 Jul 11;418(6894):252–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khashan SA, Alazzam A, Furlani EP. Computational analysis of enhanced magnetic bioseparation in microfluidic systems with flow-invasive magnetic elements. Sci Rep. 2014 Jun 16;4:5299.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pan X, Li Z, Zhou Q, Shen H, Wu K, Huang X, et al. Structure of the human voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.4 in complex with β1. Science. 2018 Oct 19;362(6412).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stahl S. Real Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Piccioli A. Bones: Orthopaedic Pathologies in Roman Imperial Age. 1st ed. 2015. Gazzaniga V, Catalano P, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XXI, 154 p. 199 illus., 141 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Emery K, Sallee T, Han Q. Worker Selection for Reliably Crowdsourcing Location-Dependent Tasks. In: Sigg S, Nurmi P, Salim F, editors. Mobile Computing, Applications, and Services: 7th International Conference, MobiCASE 2015, Berlin, Germany, November 12–13, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 71–86. (Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diseases of the Esophagus.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Regenerate Living Organs For The First Time [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Land Management Systems: Actions Needed in Completing the Automated Land and Mineral Record System Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 May. Report No.: AIMD-98-107.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wead MO. Fear and Doubt [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. The New Commitments. New York Times. 2002 Dec 22;144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDiseases of the Esophagus
AbbreviationDis. Esophagus
ISSN (print)1120-8694
ISSN (online)1442-2050
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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