How to format your references using the Diseases of the Esophagus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diseases of the Esophagus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gregg C. Eppendorf winner. Parental control over the brain. Science. 2010 Nov 5;330(6005):770–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scully KM, Rosenfeld MG. Pituitary development: regulatory codes in mammalian organogenesis. Science. 2002 Mar 22;295(5563):2231–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
O’Connor DH, Huber D, Svoboda K. Reverse engineering the mouse brain. Nature. 2009 Oct 15;461(7266):923–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Turk D, McPhaden MJ, Busalacchi AJ, Lewis MR. Remotely sensed biological production in the equatorial Pacific. Science. 2001 Jul 20;293(5529):471–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ellis H, Lawson A. Anatomy for Anaesthetists. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Acchar W. Ceramic Materials from Coffee Bagasse Ash Waste. J. V. Dultra E, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. VI, 91 p. 71 illus., 5 illus. in color. (SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology).
A chapter in an edited book
Sánchez-Lozano JM, García-Cascales MS, Lamata MT. Decision Criteria for Optimal Location of Solar Plants: Photovoltaic and Thermoelectric. In: Cavallaro F, editor. Assessment and Simulation Tools for Sustainable Energy Systems: Theory and Applications. London: Springer; 2013. p. 79–91. (Green Energy and Technology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diseases of the Esophagus.

Blog post
Fang J. These Wasps Have Zinc-Tipped Drill Bits [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Construction of Space Shuttle Facilities at Vandenberg Air Force Base. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Jun. Report No.: B-183134.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bradnan DM. Cherelle Wilt in Theobroma cacao [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B. Arab Nations Present Demands to Qatar, Including That It Close Down Al Jazeera. New York Times. 2017 Jun 23;A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDiseases of the Esophagus
AbbreviationDis. Esophagus
ISSN (print)1120-8694
ISSN (online)1442-2050
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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