How to format your references using the Diseases of the Esophagus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diseases of the Esophagus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Stewart I I. Mathematics. The Lorenz attractor exists. Nature. 2000 Aug 31;406(6799):948–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Miller MW, Williams ES. Prion disease: horizontal prion transmission in mule deer. Nature. 2003 Sep 4;425(6953):35–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Yuasa S, Nagahama T, Suzuki Y. Spin-polarized resonant tunneling in magnetic tunnel junctions. Science. 2002 Jul 12;297(5579):234–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Devarapalli RR, Debgupta J, Pillai VK, Shelke MV. C@SiNW/TiO2 core-shell nanoarrays with sandwiched carbon passivation layer as high efficiency photoelectrode for water splitting. Sci Rep. 2014 May 9;4:4897.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Böhmer E. Dentistry in Rabbits and Rodents. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1.
Zvacek S, Restivo MT, Uhomoibhi J, Helfert M, editors. Computer Supported Education: 7th International Conference, CSEDU 2015, Lisbon, Portugal, May 23-25, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XVIII, 636 p. 208 illus. in color. (Communications in Computer and Information Science; vol. 583).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Brown DW, Duchane DV, Heiken G, Hriscu VT. Phase I Reservoir Development—Redrilling and Flow Testing. In: Duchane DV, Heiken G, Hriscu VT, editors. Mining the Earth’s Heat: Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 151–234.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diseases of the Esophagus.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. What Would Earth Look Like Without Oceans? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: FBI Is Building Management Capabilities Essential to Successful System Deployments, but Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Sep. Report No.: GAO-05-1014T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Ganji VG. Exploring the application of haptic feedback guidance for port crane modernization [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Feeney K. To the City, From The Country. New York Times. 2008 Jul 20;NJ11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDiseases of the Esophagus
AbbreviationDis. Esophagus
ISSN (print)1120-8694
ISSN (online)1442-2050
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Gastroenterology

Other styles