How to format your references using the Diseases of the Esophagus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diseases of the Esophagus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McDermott J. The evolution of music. Nature. 2008 May 15;453(7193):287–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Freidin E, Kacelnik A. Rational choice, context dependence, and the value of information in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Science. 2011 Nov 18;334(6058):1000–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krumholz MR, McKee CF, Klein RI. The formation of stars by gravitational collapse rather than competitive accretion. Nature. 2005 Nov 17;438(7066):332–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kromer B, Manning SW, Kuniholm PI, Newton MW, Spurk M, Levin I. Regional 14CO2 offsets in the troposphere: magnitude, mechanisms, and consequences. Science. 2001 Dec 21;294(5551):2529–32.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Uribe S. Frontier Road. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Rocca J, Menoni C, Marconi M, editors. X-Ray Lasers 2014: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XXXIX, 416 p. 100 illus., 50 illus. in color. (Springer Proceedings in Physics; vol. 169).
A chapter in an edited book
Dalmo R, Bøgwald J, Tafalla C. Adjuvants and Delivery Methods: Current and Novel. In: Adams A, editor. Fish Vaccines. Basel: Springer; 2016. p. 75–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diseases of the Esophagus.

Blog post
Andrew E. Study Suggests Rats Capable Of Feeling Regret Over Poor Choices. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Immature Software Acquisition Processes Increase FAA System Acquisition Risks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Mar. Report No.: AIMD-97-47.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kratovac S. Developmental alterations in inhibitory neurotransmission in the Fragile X Syndrome mouse basolateral amygdala [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Solomon BC. In Grim Camps, Desperate Scene for Rohingya. New York Times. 2017 Sep 29;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDiseases of the Esophagus
AbbreviationDis. Esophagus
ISSN (print)1120-8694
ISSN (online)1442-2050
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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