How to format your references using the Diseases of the Esophagus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diseases of the Esophagus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rausher MD. Comment on “Evolutionary paths underlying flower color variation in Antirrhinum.” Science. 2007 Jan 26;315(5811):461; author reply 461.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jørgensen HF, Fisher AG. Can controversies be put to REST? Nature. 2010 Sep 2;467(7311):E3-4; discussion E5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whitfield CW, Cziko A-M, Robinson GE. Gene expression profiles in the brain predict behavior in individual honey bees. Science. 2003 Oct 10;302(5643):296–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chandrashekar J, Hoon MA, Ryba NJP, Zuker CS. The receptors and cells for mammalian taste. Nature. 2006 Nov 16;444(7117):288–94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bma. Everyday Medical Ethics and Law. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Lindler LE, Lebeda FJ, Korch GW, editors. Biological Weapons Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterbioterrorism. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2005. XXII, 598 p. 78 illus. (Infectious Disease).
A chapter in an edited book
Falcone Y, Fernandez J-C, Mounier L, Richier J-L. A Test Calculus Framework Applied to Network Security Policies. In: Havelund K, Núñez M, Roşu G, Wolff B, editors. Formal Approaches to Software Testing and Runtime Verification: First Combined International Workshops, FATES 2006 and RV 2006, Seattle, WA, USA, August 15-16, 2006, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 55–69. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diseases of the Esophagus.

Blog post
Andrews R. Terrifying Robo-Priest Gives You Blessings And Haunts Your Dreams [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Early Childhood Programs: Characteristics Affect the Availability of School Readiness Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Feb. Report No.: HEHS-00-38.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson L. The Relationship between Mock Jurors’ Locus of Control, Belief in a Just World, and an NGRI Verdict [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. A Bird? A Plane? La Borinqueña! New York Times. 2016 Jun 12;MB4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,1.
This sentence cites four references 1,1,1,1.

About the journal

Full journal titleDiseases of the Esophagus
AbbreviationDis. Esophagus
ISSN (print)1120-8694
ISSN (online)1442-2050
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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