How to format your references using the HardwareX citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HardwareX. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S.E. Hough, Journal club. A seismologist considers a new method of earthquake prediction, Nature. 457 (2009) 767.
A journal article with 2 authors
F.G. Marx, M.D. Uhen, Climate, critters, and cetaceans: Cenozoic drivers of the evolution of modern whales, Science. 327 (2010) 993–996.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Zhou, Y. Pei, D. Fang, Magnetic field tunable small-scale mechanical properties of nickel single crystals measured by nanoindentation technique, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4583.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Meléndez, Z. Tallóczy, M. Seaman, E.-L. Eskelinen, D.H. Hall, B. Levine, Autophagy genes are essential for dauer development and life-span extension in C. elegans, Science. 301 (2003) 1387–1391.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Moorhouse, P. Barry, Bioinformatics Biocomputing and Perl, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2005.
An edited book
T. Bickmore, S. Marsella, C. Sidner, eds., Intelligent Virtual Agents: 14th International Conference, IVA 2014, Boston, MA, USA, August 27-29, 2014. Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
T.B. Rodrigues, S. Cerdán, 1.4 The Cerebral Tricarboxylic Acid Cycles, in: A. Lajtha, G.E. Gibson, G.A. Dienel (Eds.), Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology: Brain Energetics. Integration of Molecular and Cellular Processes, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2007: pp. 63–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HardwareX.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Human Trial Investigating Cannabis As A Brain Cancer Treatment Set To Begin This Year, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Transportation Security: Efforts to Strengthen Aviation and Surface Transportation Security Continue to Progress, but More Work Remains, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T.N. Harvey, Effects of low pass filtered input on adult non-lexical intonation in second language acquisition, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Markoff, Robert Fano, 98, a Designer of Computers, New York Times. (2016) A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHardwareX
ISSN (print)2468-0672

Other styles