How to format your references using the HardwareX citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HardwareX. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Walker, The fun of science, Science. 344 (2014) 1314.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.M. Cox, R. Calsbeek, Cryptic sex-ratio bias provides indirect genetic benefits despite sexual conflict, Science. 328 (2010) 92–94.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.R. Neal, S.E. Haggerty, V. Sautter, “Majorite” and “silicate perovskite” mineral compositions in xenoliths from Malaita, Science. 292 (2001) 1015.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Liu, X.V. Yang, J. Wu, C. Kuei, N.S. Mani, L. Zhang, J. Yu, S.W. Sutton, N. Qin, H. Banie, L. Karlsson, S. Sun, T.W. Lovenberg, Oxysterols direct B-cell migration through EBI2, Nature. 475 (2011) 519–523.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Snape, Ancient Egyptian Tombs, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
Y. Liang, Silicon in Agriculture: From Theory to Practice, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
L.R.R. Lilenfeld, Suicidal Behavior in Eating Disorders, in: Y. Latzer, D. Stein (Eds.), Bio-Psycho-Social Contributions to Understanding Eating Disorders, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 65–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HardwareX.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Giant Extinct Volcano Discovered In Pacific Ocean, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Commercial Aviation: Preliminary Observations on Legacy Airlines’ Financial Condition, Bankruptcy, and Pension Issues, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.G. Baggio, Integrating social software into blended -learning courses: A Delphi study of instructional -design processes, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, M. Cooper, Gloomy Forecast for States, Even if Economy Rebounds, New York Times. (2012) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHardwareX
ISSN (print)2468-0672

Other styles