How to format your references using the HardwareX citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HardwareX. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Pagel, Natural selection 150 years on, Nature. 457 (2009) 808–811.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.R. Dorin, I.J. Jackson, Genetics. Beta-defensin repertoire expands, Science. 318 (2007) 1395.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Lee, S.P. Gross, J. Lee, Improved network community structure improves function prediction, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2197.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Rappuoli, G. Del Giudice, G.J. Nabel, A.D.M.E. Osterhaus, R. Robinson, D. Salisbury, K. Stöhr, J.J. Treanor, Public health. Rethinking influenza, Science. 326 (2009) 50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.W. Edwards, Risk Management in Trading, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
R. Strumia, ed., Eating Disorders and the Skin, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
J.M. Gibson, A.S. Brammer, C.A. Davidson, T. Folley, F.J.P. Launay, J.T.W. Thomsen, Burden of Disease from Indoor Air Pollution, in: A. Brammer, C. Davidson, T. Folley, F. Launay, J. Thomsen (Eds.), Environmental Burden of Disease Assessment, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013: pp. 109–132.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HardwareX.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Hidden “Mantle Scars” Can Come To Life And Cause Earthquakes, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Security: Secure Flight Development and Testing Under Way, but Risks Should Be Managed as System Is Further Developed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. Mednick Takami, Chief Diversity Officers in U.S. Higher Education: Impacting the Campus Climate for Diversity, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, Scandals Test the N.C.A.A.’s Top Rules Enforcer, New York Times. (2011) D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHardwareX
ISSN (print)2468-0672

Other styles