How to format your references using the Discrete Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Discrete Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Micoli, Scientists and societies. Postdoc problems--postdoc solutions, Nature. 434 (2005) 1050.
A journal article with 2 authors
E. Bier, E.M. De Robertis, EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT. BMP gradients: A paradigm for morphogen-mediated developmental patterning, Science. 348 (2015) aaa5838.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.E. Raymo, L.E. Lisiecki, K.H. Nisancioglu, Plio-Pleistocene ice volume, Antarctic climate, and the global delta18O record, Science. 313 (2006) 492–495.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Tiberj, M. Rubio-Roy, M. Paillet, J.-R. Huntzinger, P. Landois, M. Mikolasek, S. Contreras, J.-L. Sauvajol, E. Dujardin, A.-A. Zahab, Reversible optical doping of graphene, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2355.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Y. Rémond, S. Ahzi, M. Baniassadi, H. Garmestani, Applied RVE Reconstruction and Homogenization of Heterogeneous Materials, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
Z.W. Ras, L.-S. Tsay, eds., Advances in Intelligent Information Systems, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
S.J. Stetson, The Use of Clomiphene Citrate in Natural Cycle IVF, in: G.N. Allahbadia, M. Nitzschke (Eds.), Minimal Stimulation and Natural Cycle In Vitro Fertilization, Springer India, New Delhi, 2015: pp. 23–29.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Discrete Optimization.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Sea Slugs Have Crazy Forehead Sex, IFLScience. (2013). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information Technology: Treasury Needs to Better Define and Implement Its Earned Value Management Policy, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Fay, Aposematic Variation and the Evolution of Warning Coloration in Mammals, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
A. Higgins, Putin Butts In to Claim There Were No Secrets, And Says He’ll Prove It, New York Times. (2017) A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiscrete Optimization
AbbreviationDiscrete Optim.
ISSN (print)1572-5286
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Applied Mathematics
Theoretical Computer Science

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