How to format your references using the Discrete Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Discrete Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N. Engheta, OPTICS. 150 years of Maxwell’s equations, Science. 349 (2015) 136–137.
A journal article with 2 authors
E.A. Holm, S.M. Foiles, How grain growth stops: a mechanism for grain-growth stagnation in pure materials, Science. 328 (2010) 1138–1141.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Kartal, J.G. Kuenen, M.C.M. van Loosdrecht, Engineering. Sewage treatment with anammox, Science. 328 (2010) 702–703.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F. Wolfe-Simon, J. Switzer Blum, T.R. Kulp, G.W. Gordon, S.E. Hoeft, J. Pett-Ridge, J.F. Stolz, S.M. Webb, P.K. Weber, P.C.W. Davies, A.D. Anbar, R.S. Oremland, A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus, Science. 332 (2011) 1163–1166.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V.S. Cheng, J.C. Tong, Building Sustainability in East Asia, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2017.
An edited book
U. Fratesi, L. Senn, eds., Growth and Innovation of Competitive Regions: The Role of Internal and External Connections, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Zeng, C. Tang, Y. Liu, J. Qiu, M. Zhu, S. Dai, Y. Xiang, Mining h-Dimensional Enhanced Semantic Association Rule Based on Immune-Based Gene Expression Programming, in: L. Feng, G. Wang, C. Zeng, R. Huang (Eds.), Web Information Systems – WISE 2006 Workshops: WISE 2006 International Workshops, Wuhan, China, October 23-26, 2006. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006: pp. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Discrete Optimization.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, You Can Watch Wild Orcas In Action Thanks To These New Live Cameras, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Motor Carrier Safety: Additional Research Standards and Truck Drivers’ Schedule Data Could Allow More Accurate Assessments of the Hours of Service Rule, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N.K. Mannar, Hri-Tech Consultants, LLC, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, Eight Teams That Will Try Their Best. How Novel, New York Times. (2010) D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiscrete Optimization
AbbreviationDiscrete Optim.
ISSN (print)1572-5286
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Applied Mathematics
Theoretical Computer Science

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