How to format your references using the Discrete Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Discrete Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.E. Moller, New drug targets for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, Nature. 414 (2001) 821–827.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Wei, X. Li, Differential effects of propranolol on conditioned hyperactivity and locomotor sensitization induced by morphine in rats, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3786.
A journal article with 3 authors
W.M. Miner-Williams, P.J. Moughan, M.F. Fuller, Analysis of an ethanol precipitate from ileal digesta: evaluation of a method to determine mucin, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3145.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.L. Geffeney, E. Fujimoto, E.D. Brodie 3rd, E.D. Brodie Jr, P.C. Ruben, Evolutionary diversification of TTX-resistant sodium channels in a predator-prey interaction, Nature. 434 (2005) 759–763.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C.T. Rim, C. Mi, Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles and Mobile Devices, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2017.
An edited book
A. Garro, ed., Early Childhood Assessment in School and Clinical Child Psychology, Springer, New York, NY, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
K.T. Kearney, F. Torelli, The SLA Model, in: P. Wieder, J.M. Butler, W. Theilmann, R. Yahyapour (Eds.), Service Level Agreements for Cloud Computing, Springer, New York, NY, 2011: pp. 43–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Discrete Optimization.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Early Humans Had To Become More Feminine Before They Could Dominate The Planet, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, New Ways of Preparing Data for Computers Could Save Money and Time and Reduce Errors, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.J. Timko, Polynomial Tuples of Commuting Isometries Constrained by 1-Dimensional Varieties, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. Rosenberg, Doctor Is Charged in Death After an Abortion, New York Times. (2016) A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiscrete Optimization
AbbreviationDiscrete Optim.
ISSN (print)1572-5286
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Applied Mathematics
Theoretical Computer Science

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