How to format your references using the Discrete Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Discrete Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C.J. Marx, Microbiology. Getting in touch with your friends, Science. 324 (2009) 1150–1151.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.G. Jones, I.J. Ferguson, The electric Moho, Nature. 409 (2001) 331–333.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Nieder, I. Diester, O. Tudusciuc, Temporal and spatial enumeration processes in the primate parietal cortex, Science. 313 (2006) 1431–1435.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Li, W. Xue, M. Li, M. Dong, J. Wang, X. Wang, X. Li, K. Chen, W. Zhang, S. Wu, Y. Zhang, L. Gao, Y. Chen, J. Chen, B.O. Zhou, Y. Zhou, X. Yao, L. Li, D. Wu, W. Pan, VCAM-1+ macrophages guide the homing of HSPCs to a vascular niche, Nature. (2018).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Blanchet, M. Charbit, Digital Signal and Image Processing Using Matlab®, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
R.A. Young, Transition to Adulthood: Action, Projects, and Counseling, Springer, New York, NY, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Zhou, B. Wen, Portable High Frequency Surface Wave Radar OSMAR-S, in: H. Leung, S. Chandra Mukhopadhyay (Eds.), Intelligent Environmental Sensing, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 79–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Discrete Optimization.

Blog post
E. Andrew, That Sinking Feeling… Could Cavities on Comet Pose yet Another Risk to Philae?, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Vocational Rehabilitation: Improved Federal Leadership Could Help States Focus Services on Those With Severe Handicaps, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H. Darvish, Smart Power Grid Synchronization with Nonlinear Estimation, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Kelly, New Libraries That Don’t Just Go by the Book, New York Times. (2007) WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiscrete Optimization
AbbreviationDiscrete Optim.
ISSN (print)1572-5286
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Applied Mathematics
Theoretical Computer Science

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