How to format your references using the Journal of The Institution of Engineers: Series C citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of The Institution of Engineers: Series C. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. A. Abbott, Nature 407, 276 (2000).
A journal article with 2 authors
1. P. C. Ronald and B. Beutler, Science 330, 1061 (2010).
A journal article with 3 authors
1. W. T. Pfeffer, J. T. Harper, and S. O’Neel, Science 321, 1340 (2008).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Q.-B. Lu, Y. Wo, L.-Y. Wang, H.-Y. Wang, D.-D. Huang, X.-A. Zhang, W. Liu, and W.-C. Cao, Sci. Rep. 4, 6686 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. B. J. Bain, B. J. Wild, A. D. Stephens, and L. A. Phelan, Variant Haemoglobins (Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010).
An edited book
1. D. S. Rosenblum and G. Taentzer, editors , Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering: 13th International Conference, FASE 2010, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2010, Paphos, Cyprus, March 20-28, 2010. Proceedings (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010).
A chapter in an edited book
1. L. M. Leemis, in Simulation Methods for Reliability and Availability of Complex Systems, edited by J. Faulin, A. A. Juan, S. Martorell, and J.-E. Ramírez-Márquez (Springer, London, 2010), pp. 85–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of The Institution of Engineers: Series C.

Blog post
1. A. Carpineti, IFLScience (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office, Spectrum Management: Better Knowledge Needed to Take Advantage of Technologies That May Improve Spectrum Efficiency (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. A. P. Dusso, The Psychology of Institutional Development: How Parties’ Willingness to Accept Risk Affects the Districts They Draw and the Seats They Win, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. M. D. Shear, L. Goodstein, and M. Haberman, New York Times A15 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of The Institution of Engineers: Series C
ISSN (print)2250-0545
ISSN (online)2250-0553

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