How to format your references using the Discrete Mathematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Discrete Mathematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E.J. Garnero, Geophysics. A new paradigm for Earth’s core-mantle boundary, Science. 304 (2004) 834–836.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.E. Santos, W. Salzburger, Evolution. How cichlids diversify, Science. 338 (2012) 619–621.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Henrich, S.J. Heine, A. Norenzayan, Most people are not WEIRD, Nature. 466 (2010) 29.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L.M. Guogas, D.J. Filman, J.M. Hogle, L. Gehrke, Cofolding organizes alfalfa mosaic virus RNA and coat protein for replication, Science. 306 (2004) 2108–2111.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W. Panek, T. Wentworth, Mastering Microsoft® Windows® 7 Administration, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2010.
An edited book
J.P. Müller, F. Zambonelli, eds., Agent-Oriented Software Engineering VI: 6th International Workshop, AOSE 2005, Utrecht, The Netherlands, July 25, 2005. Revised and Invited Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Han, L. Rudolph, M. Chou, S. Corbett, E. Eagle, D. Glotzer, J. Kramer, J. Moran, C. Pietras, A. Tareen, M. Valko, Configurations and Path Planning of Convex Planar Polygonal Loops, in: E. Frazzoli, T. Lozano-Perez, N. Roy, D. Rus (Eds.), Algorithmic Foundations of Robotics X: Proceedings of the Tenth Workshop on the Algorithmic Foundations of Robotics, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 53–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Discrete Mathematics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Our Star Trek-Style Skin-Healing Technology Could Be The End Of Chronic Wounds, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Next Generation Air Transportation System: Issues Associated with Midterm Implementation of Capabilities and Full System Transformation, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.M. Wrobleski, The challenge of teen nutrition: An ecological view of socio-cognitive influences on urban, African-American adolescent diet quality, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Feeney, Home-Style Colombian, New York Times. (2008) 14NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiscrete Mathematics
AbbreviationDiscrete Math.
ISSN (print)0012-365X
ScopeDiscrete Mathematics and Combinatorics
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles