How to format your references using the Discrete Mathematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Discrete Mathematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Smith, Genomics: big tasks for small molecules, Nature. 435 (2005) 991.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.I. Millar, N.L. Stephenson, Temperate forest health in an era of emerging megadisturbance, Science. 349 (2015) 823–826.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Arash, Q. Wang, V.K. Varadan, Mechanical properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6479.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.J. Klose, K. Yamane, Y. Bae, D. Zhang, H. Erdjument-Bromage, P. Tempst, J. Wong, Y. Zhang, The transcriptional repressor JHDM3A demethylates trimethyl histone H3 lysine 9 and lysine 36, Nature. 442 (2006) 312–316.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M.G. Cruz, G.W. Peters, P.V. Shevchenko, Fundamental Aspects of Operational Risk and Insurance Analytics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
K. Berkling, M. Joseph, B. Meyer, M. Nordio, eds., Software Engineering Approaches for Offshore and Outsourced Development: Second International Conference, SEAFOOD 2008, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2-3, 2008. Revised Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Alenda, N. Olivetti, Tableau Calculus for the Logic of Comparative Similarity over Arbitrary Distance Spaces, in: C.G. Fermüller, A. Voronkov (Eds.), Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence, and Reasoning: 17th International Conference, LPAR-17, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, October 10-15, 2010. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: pp. 52–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Discrete Mathematics.

Blog post
T. Hale, A Tree Species Thought To Be Extinct Has Been Found In The Queen’s Garden, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Interagency Laboratory Use: Current Practices and Recurring Problems, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.A. Lucas, Bridging the Gap Between Schools and Families Through Teacher Home Visits, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, Hillary Clinton Rejects Delay in Health Plan, New York Times. (1993) B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiscrete Mathematics
AbbreviationDiscrete Math.
ISSN (print)0012-365X
ScopeDiscrete Mathematics and Combinatorics
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles