How to format your references using the Discrete Mathematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Discrete Mathematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P.F. Bernath, Chemistry. Extracting potentials from spectra, Science. 324 (2009) 1526–1527.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Green, B. Ewing, Comment on “Evidence of abundant purifying selection in humans for recently acquired regulatory functions,” Science. 340 (2013) 682.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Kreiman, C. Koch, I. Fried, Imagery neurons in the human brain, Nature. 408 (2000) 357–361.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Terada, M. Anand, A.K. Sokol, A. Bischoff, Y. Sano, Cryptomare magmatism 4.35 Gyr ago recorded in lunar meteorite Kalahari 009, Nature. 450 (2007) 849–852.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Heitz, G. Kreysa, Grundlagen der Technischen Elektrochemie, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2005.
An edited book
A.V. Fursikov, G.P. Galdi, V.V. Pukhnachev, eds., New Directions in Mathematical Fluid Mechanics: The Alexander V. Kazhikhov Memorial Volume, Birkhäuser, Basel, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
V.F. Hendricks, P.G. Hansen, Informational Cascades and Lemmings, in: P.G. Hansen (Ed.), Infostorms: Why Do We “like”? Explaining Individual Behavior on the Social Net, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 61–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Discrete Mathematics.

Blog post
J. Davis, July 2016 Was Officially The Hottest Month Ever On Record, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Safety: FAA’s Use of Emergency Orders to Revoke or Suspend Operating Certificates, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L.K. Martin, Norway leads the world in gender equality and work-life balance: A qualitative life course study of Norwegian women, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, Justice Recalls Treats Laced With Poison, New York Times. (2006) A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiscrete Mathematics
AbbreviationDiscrete Math.
ISSN (print)0012-365X
ScopeDiscrete Mathematics and Combinatorics
Theoretical Computer Science

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