How to format your references using the Digital Creativity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digital Creativity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Artaxo, Paulo. 2012. “Break down Boundaries in Climate Research.” Nature 481 (7381): 239.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ellis, George, and Joe Silk. 2014. “Scientific Method: Defend the Integrity of Physics.” Nature 516 (7531): 321–323.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pfeiffer, T., S. Schuster, and S. Bonhoeffer. 2001. “Cooperation and Competition in the Evolution of ATP-Producing Pathways.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 292 (5516): 504–507.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bachman, Eric S., Harveen Dhillon, Chen-Yu Zhang, Saverio Cinti, Antonio C. Bianco, Brian K. Kobilka, and Bradford B. Lowell. 2002. “BetaAR Signaling Required for Diet-Induced Thermogenesis and Obesity Resistance.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 297 (5582): 843–845.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Noordenbos, Greta. 2013. Recovery from Eating Disorders. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sugi, Haruo, ed. 2005. Sliding Filament Mechanism in Muscle Contraction: Fifty Years of Research. Vol. 565. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, Zhanli, Cheng Gao, and Yu Sun. 2011. “Research on Collision Detection of Tree Swaying in Wind.” In Computer Science for Environmental Engineering and EcoInformatics: International Workshop, CSEEE 2011, Kunming, China, July 29-31, 2011, Proceedings, Part II, edited by Yuanxu Yu, Zhengtao Yu, and Jingying Zhao, 18–23. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digital Creativity.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2015. “Surgeons Successfully Graft Hand Onto Patient’s Leg And Keep It Alive For A Month.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Executive Guide: Best Practices in Achieving Consistent, Accurate Physical Counts of Inventory and Related Property. GAO-01-763G. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Campbell, Alesia J. 2012. “History Transformed: Sengoku Daimyo in Japanese Popular Media.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, Michael D. 2017. “In Trump’s Silence, Pence Takes a Swipe at Russia.” New York Times, August 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Artaxo 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Artaxo 2012; Ellis and Silk 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ellis and Silk 2014)
  • Three authors: (Pfeiffer, Schuster, and Bonhoeffer 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Bachman et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleDigital Creativity
ISSN (print)1462-6268
ISSN (online)1744-3806
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Human-Computer Interaction

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