How to format your references using the Digital Creativity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digital Creativity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. 2000. “Congress Wakes up to Climate Change.” Nature 405 (6785): 385.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yin, Jie, and Mary C. Boyce. 2015. “Materials Science: Unique Wrinkles as Identity Tags.” Nature 520 (7546): 164–165.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lane, Michelle, Rebecca L. Robker, and Sarah A. Robertson. 2014. “Parenting from before Conception.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 345 (6198): 756–760.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Cortázar, Daniel, Christophe Kunz, Jim Selfridge, Teresa Lettieri, Yusuke Saito, Eilidh MacDougall, Annika Wirz, et al. 2011. “Embryonic Lethal Phenotype Reveals a Function of TDG in Maintaining Epigenetic Stability.” Nature 470 (7334): 419–423.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Trigeassou, Jean-Claude. 2011. Electrical Machines Diagnosis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Graziottin, Alessandra. 2011. Vulvodinia: Strategie Di Diagnosi e Cura. Edited by Filippo Murina. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jevtić, Miroljub, Dragan Vukotić, and Miloš Arsenović. 2016. “Carleson Measures, Mean Oscillation Spaces and Duality.” In Taylor Coefficients and Coefficient Multipliers of Hardy and Bergman-Type Spaces, edited by Dragan Vukotić and Miloš Arsenović, 91–106. RSME Springer Series. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digital Creativity.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2017. “Newly Discovered Glass Frog Shows Off Its Beating Heart.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. The National Aero-Space Plane. 137896. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cao, Qing. 2013. “East Asian Backpacker Tourists’ Motivations for Participating in Backpacking.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Codrea-Rado, Anna. 2017. “Pharrell Williams Kneels in Protest.” New York Times, September 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain 2000; Yin and Boyce 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yin and Boyce 2015)
  • Three authors: (Lane, Robker, and Robertson 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Cortázar et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleDigital Creativity
ISSN (print)1462-6268
ISSN (online)1744-3806
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Human-Computer Interaction

Other styles