How to format your references using the Digital Creativity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digital Creativity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ehrsson, H. Henrik. 2007. “The Experimental Induction of Out-of-Body Experiences.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 317 (5841): 1048.
A journal article with 2 authors
Otsuka, Kazuhiko, and Shun-Ichiro Karato. 2012. “Deep Penetration of Molten Iron into the Mantle Caused by a Morphological Instability.” Nature 492 (7428): 243–246.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thürmer, Konrad, Robert Q. Hwang, and Norman C. Bartelt. 2006. “Surface Self-Organization Caused by Dislocation Networks.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5765): 1272–1274.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Li, Y., V. Balédent, N. Barisić, Y. Cho, B. Fauqué, Y. Sidis, G. Yu, X. Zhao, P. Bourges, and M. Greven. 2008. “Unusual Magnetic Order in the Pseudogap Region of the Superconductor HgBa2CuO4+delta.” Nature 455 (7211): 372–375.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kodama, Kenneth P., and Linda A. Hinnov. 2014. Rock Magnetic Cyclostratigraphy. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Silva, Lucas F. M. da, and Chiaki Sato, eds. 2013. Design of Adhesive Joints Under Humid Conditions. Vol. 25. Advanced Structured Materials. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Terwijn, Sebastiaan A. 2010. “Intuitionistic Logic and Computability Theory.” In Logic, Language, Information and Computation: 17th International Workshop, WoLLIC 2010, Brasilia, Brazil, July 6-9, 2010. Proceedings, edited by Anuj Dawar and Ruy de Queiroz, 55–57. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digital Creativity.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Could Photons Travel Through Time Using Wormholes?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Space Acquisitions: Assessment of Overhead Persistent Infrared Technology Report. GAO-14-287R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyd, James L. 2017. “Interactive Simulations: Improving Learning Retention in Knowledge-Based Online Training Courses.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mele, Christopher, and Ben Shpigel. 2016. “Former Jets Is Fatally Shot.” New York Times, December 2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ehrsson 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Ehrsson 2007; Otsuka and Karato 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Otsuka and Karato 2012)
  • Three authors: (Thürmer, Hwang, and Bartelt 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Li et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleDigital Creativity
ISSN (print)1462-6268
ISSN (online)1744-3806
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Human-Computer Interaction

Other styles