How to format your references using the Digital Creativity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digital Creativity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shepherd, Theodore G. 2015. “Climate Science: The Dynamics of Temperature Extremes.” Nature 522 (7557): 425–427.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cemma, Marija, and John H. Brumell. 2013. “Immunology. Bacterial Escape Artists Set Afire.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339 (6122): 912–913.
A journal article with 3 authors
Atwood, Jerry L., Leonard J. Barbour, and Agoston Jerga. 2002. “Storage of Methane and Freon by Interstitial van Der Waals Confinement.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5577): 2367–2369.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Santiago, Mario L., Mauricio Montano, Robert Benitez, Ronald J. Messer, Wes Yonemoto, Bruce Chesebro, Kim J. Hasenkrug, and Warner C. Greene. 2008. “Apobec3 Encodes Rfv3, a Gene Influencing Neutralizing Antibody Control of Retrovirus Infection.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321 (5894): 1343–1346.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quinquis, André. 2008. Digital Signal Processing Using MATLAB®. London, UK: ISTE.
An edited book
Kenesei, Tamás. 2015. Interpretability of Computational Intelligence-Based Regression Models. Edited by János Abonyi. SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, Dake, Anders Nilsson, and Eric Tell. 2006. “PROGRAMMABLE BASEBAND PROCESSORS.” In Radio Design in Nanometer Technologies, edited by Mohammed Ismail and Delia Rodríguez D. E. Llera González, 83–100. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digital Creativity.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “520 Million Year Old Cardiovascular System Found.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Computer Security: Hackers Penetrate DOD Computer Systems. T-IMTEC-92-5. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wahl, Robert J. 2012. “Agustín Barrios and Musical Identity: Tangos in Early Twentieth-Century Guitar Repertory.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2014. “Staying on the Island, but Moving a World Away.” New York Times, October 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shepherd 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Shepherd 2015; Cemma and Brumell 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cemma and Brumell 2013)
  • Three authors: (Atwood, Barbour, and Jerga 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Santiago et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleDigital Creativity
ISSN (print)1462-6268
ISSN (online)1744-3806
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Human-Computer Interaction

Other styles