How to format your references using the Digital Creativity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digital Creativity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robinson, Terry E. 2004. “Neuroscience. Addicted Rats.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5686): 951–953.
A journal article with 2 authors
Felsenfeld, Gary, and Mark Groudine. 2003. “Controlling the Double Helix.” Nature 421 (6921): 448–453.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goebel, Ted, Michael R. Waters, and Margarita Dikova. 2003. “The Archaeology of Ushki Lake, Kamchatka, and the Pleistocene Peopling of the Americas.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5632): 501–505.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mameli, Manuel, Bénédicte Balland, Rafael Luján, and Christian Lüscher. 2007. “Rapid Synthesis and Synaptic Insertion of GluR2 for MGluR-LTD in the Ventral Tegmental Area.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 317 (5837): 530–533.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Glaser, Robert. 2015. Symmetry, Spectroscopy, and Crystallography. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Hardiman, Orla, and Colin P. Doherty, eds. 2011. Neurodegenerative Disorders: A Clinical Guide. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Galán Saúco, Victor, Maria Herrero, and Jose I. Hormaza. 2014. “Tropical and Subtropical Fruits.” In Horticulture: Plants for People and Places, Volume 1: Production Horticulture, edited by Geoffrey R. Dixon and David E. Aldous, 123–157. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digital Creativity.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2017. “Air Pollution Kills More Children Globally Than Malaria.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1981. The Federal Interest in Legislative-Administrative Relations in the States. 114840. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fanelli, Rosemary Margaret. 2017. “Effects of Urbanization and Infiltration-Based Watershed Restoration on the Hydro-Ecology of Headwater Streams.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, Linda. 2017. “Pre-Existing Conditions: There’s Truth-Stretching From Both Sides.” New York Times, May 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Robinson 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Robinson 2004; Felsenfeld and Groudine 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Felsenfeld and Groudine 2003)
  • Three authors: (Goebel, Waters, and Dikova 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Mameli et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleDigital Creativity
ISSN (print)1462-6268
ISSN (online)1744-3806
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Human-Computer Interaction

Other styles