How to format your references using the Digital Creativity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digital Creativity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Palese, Peter. 2012. “Don’t Censor Life-Saving Science.” Nature 481 (7380): 115.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rickman, Colin, and Wendy A. Bickmore. 2013. “Transcription. Flashing a Light on the Spatial Organization of Transcription.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 341 (6146): 621–622.
A journal article with 3 authors
Granot, Jonathan, Ehud Nakar, and Tsvi Piran. 2003. “Astrophysics: Refreshed Shocks from a Gamma-Ray Burst.” Nature 426 (6963): 138–139.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Koo, Hyun Cheol, Jae Hyun Kwon, Jonghwa Eom, Joonyeon Chang, Suk Hee Han, and Mark Johnson. 2009. “Control of Spin Precession in a Spin-Injected Field Effect Transistor.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5947): 1515–1518.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bleistein, Steven. 2017. Rapid Organizational Change. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Plattner, Hasso, Christoph Meinel, and Larry Leifer, eds. 2016. Design Thinking Research: Making Design Thinking Foundational. Understanding Innovation. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Eriksson, Nicholas. 2009. “Using Invariants for Phylogenetic Tree Construction.” In Emerging Applications of Algebraic Geometry, edited by Mihai Putinar and Seth Sullivant, 89–108. The IMA Volumes in Mathematics and Its Applications. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digital Creativity.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Meet The Spider That Lives Its Entire Life In A Bubble Underwater.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. OPM Retirement Modernization: Longstanding Information Technology Management Weaknesses Need to Be Addressed. GAO-12-226T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estep, Kimberly L. 2010. “Outreach Communication by Grassroots Environmental Organizations: A Case Study.” Doctoral dissertation, Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2005. “Justices to Decide When Victims’ Transcripts Can Be Used.” New York Times, November 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Palese 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Palese 2012; Rickman and Bickmore 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rickman and Bickmore 2013)
  • Three authors: (Granot, Nakar, and Piran 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Koo et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleDigital Creativity
ISSN (print)1462-6268
ISSN (online)1744-3806
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Human-Computer Interaction

Other styles