How to format your references using the The Lancet Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Lancet Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Wilczek F. From ‘not wrong’ to (maybe right). Nature 2004; 428: 261.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Gatfield D, Schibler U. Physiology. Proteasomes keep the circadian clock ticking. Science 2007; 316: 1135–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Shah AK, Mullainathan S, Shafir E. Some consequences of having too little. Science 2012; 338: 682–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Wang HH, Isaacs FJ, Carr PA, et al. Programming cells by multiplex genome engineering and accelerated evolution. Nature 2009; 460: 894–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Bender HF. Das Gefahrstoffbuch. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2002.
An edited book
1
Deuflhard P. A Guide to Numerical Modelling in Systems Biology. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Tibon-Czopp S, Weiner IB. The Rorschach Inkblot Method: Theory. In: Weiner IB, ed. Rorschach Assessment of Adolescents: Theory, Research, and Practice. New York, NY: Springer, 2016: 47–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Lancet Oncology.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. When It Comes To Nature’s Public Enemy Number One, The Mosquito Is A Modern Monster. IFLScience. 2015; published online March 23.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Intellectual Property: Comparison of Patent Examination Statistics for Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Lee BK. Tracking of truck flows for drayage efficiency analysis. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Walsh MW. Failed Talks Raise Specter of Biggest Default in Puerto Rico Crisis. New York Times. 2016; : A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Lancet Oncology
AbbreviationLancet Oncol.
ISSN (print)1470-2045
ISSN (online)1474-5488
ScopeOncology

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