How to format your references using the The Lancet Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Lancet Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blackmore S. Environment. Biodiversity update--progress in taxonomy. Science 2002; 298: 365.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bakker HJ, Nienhuys H-K. Delocalization of protons in liquid water. Science 2002; 297: 587–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang P, Cohen RE, Haule K. Effects of electron correlations on transport properties of iron at Earth’s core conditions. Nature 2015; 517: 605–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dias SJ, Zhou X, Ivanovic M, et al. Nuclear MTA1 overexpression is associated with aggressive prostate cancer, recurrence and metastasis in African Americans. Sci Rep 2013; 3: 2331.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Christophers B. Banking Across Boundaries. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2013.
An edited book
Chan L, Tse V, editors. Multidisciplinary Care of Urinary Incontinence: A Handbook for Health Professionals. London: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Yao X, Wu L, Zheng WX. Filtering of Markovian Jump 2-D Systems. In: Wu L, Zheng WX, eds. Filtering and Control of Stochastic Jump Hybrid Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016: 67–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Lancet Oncology.

Blog post
Luntz S. Underwater Eruptions Are Influenced By The Tides And Can Be Predicted. IFLScience. 2016; published online Dec 15. (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s System of Accounting for Accounts Receivable. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liang M. Information, communication and wayfinding: Technology shows us the world. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J, Grynbaum MM. How NBC Was Scooped on Its Own ‘Access Hollywood’ Trump Video. New York Times. 2016; : B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Lancet Oncology
AbbreviationLancet Oncol.
ISSN (print)1470-2045
ISSN (online)1474-5488

Other styles