How to format your references using the Leisure/Loisir citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leisure/Loisir. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greer, A. L. (2000). Too hot to melt. Nature, 404(6774), 134–135.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cox, C. M., & Chao, B. F. (2002). Detection of a large-scale mass redistribution in the terrestrial system since 1998. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5582), 831–833.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stebe, K. J., Lewandowski, E., & Ghosh, M. (2009). Materials science. Oriented assembly of metamaterials. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5937), 159–160.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bechtluft, P., van Leeuwen, R. G. H., Tyreman, M., Tomkiewicz, D., Nouwen, N., Tepper, H. L., Driessen, A. J. M., & Tans, S. J. (2007). Direct observation of chaperone-induced changes in a protein folding pathway. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5855), 1458–1461.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mazer, A. (2011). Shifting the Earth. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hillebrands, B., & Thiaville, A. (Eds.). (2006). Spin Dynamics in Confined Magnetic Structures III (Vol. 101). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Theron, L. C., & Phasha, N. (2015). Cultural Pathways to Resilience: Opportunities and Obstacles as Recalled by Black South African Students. In L. C. Theron, L. Liebenberg, & M. Ungar (Eds.), Youth Resilience and Culture: Commonalities and Complexities (pp. 51–65). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leisure/Loisir.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2015, January 27). How To Win At Rock-Paper-Scissors With Science. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Planning and Flexibility Are Key to Effectively Deploying Broadband Conduit through Federal Highway Projects (GAO-12-687R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chellamuthu, V. K. (2015). Structured Population Models: Numerical Methods and Application to Frogs Infected with Chytridiomycosis [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. (2017, September 21). How Did Yoda End Up With a King? New York Times, A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Greer, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Cox & Chao, 2002; Greer, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cox & Chao, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Stebe et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bechtluft et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleLeisure/Loisir
AbbreviationLeisure (Waterloo)
ISSN (print)1492-7713
ISSN (online)2151-2221
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Geography, Planning and Development

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