How to format your references using the Leisure/Loisir citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leisure/Loisir. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grant, P. M. (2003). Hydrogen lifts off--with a heavy load. Nature, 424(6945), 129–130.
A journal article with 2 authors
Beller, S., & Bender, A. (2008). The limits of counting: numerical cognition between evolution and culture. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5860), 213–215.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rogers Hollingsworth, J., Müller, K. H., & Hollingsworth, E. J. (2008). China: The end of the science superpowers. Nature, 454(7203), 412–413.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mikołajczyk-Stecyna, J., Korcz, A., Gabriel, M., Pawlaczyk, K., Oszkinis, G., & Słomski, R. (2013). Risk factors in abdominal aortic aneurysm and in Polish population aortoiliac occlusive disease and differences between them [corrected]. Scientific Reports, 3, 3528.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bilbao, S. (2005). Wave and Scattering Methods for Numerical Simulation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Petzold, A. (Ed.). (2016). Optical Coherence Tomography in Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical Applications (1st ed. 2016). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
El-Metwally, S., Ouda, O. M., & Helmy, M. (2014). Next-Generation Sequencing Platforms. In O. M. Ouda & M. Helmy (Eds.), Next Generation Sequencing Technologies and Challenges in Sequence Assembly (pp. 37–44). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leisure/Loisir.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, December 27). Skywatching Events Not To Miss In 2014. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Mass Transit: Federal Participation in Transit Benefit Programs (T-RCED-93-72). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wang, X. (2017). Inferences on Gamma Distributions: Uncensored and Censored Cases [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, August 5). Chase Is Over, But Pressure Is Still On. New York Times, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grant, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Beller & Bender, 2008; Grant, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Beller & Bender, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Rogers Hollingsworth et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Mikołajczyk-Stecyna et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLeisure/Loisir
AbbreviationLeisure (Waterloo)
ISSN (print)1492-7713
ISSN (online)2151-2221
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles