How to format your references using the Leisure/Loisir citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leisure/Loisir. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lyon, G. J. (2012). Personalized medicine: Bring clinical standards to human-genetics research. Nature, 482(7385), 300–301.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, X., & Huang, B. (2014). Computational study of in-plane phonon transport in Si thin films. Scientific Reports, 4, 6399.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu, Y., Ramu, Y., & Lu, Z. (2008). Removal of phospho-head groups of membrane lipids immobilizes voltage sensors of K+ channels. Nature, 451(7180), 826–829.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Fotiadis, D., Liang, Y., Filipek, S., Saperstein, D. A., Engel, A., & Palczewski, K. (2003). Atomic-force microscopy: Rhodopsin dimers in native disc membranes. Nature, 421(6919), 127–128.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stavetski, E. J. (2009). Managing Hedge Fund Managers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Davis, C. A., & Monteiro, A. M. V. (Eds.). (2007). Advances in Geoinformatics: VIII Brazilian Symposium on GeoInformatics, GEOINFO 2006, Campos do Jordão (SP), Brazil, November 19–22, 2006. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tomiyama, Y., & Yoshinaga, K. (2016). Kinetic Analysis for Cardiac PET. In Y. Kuge, T. Shiga, & N. Tamaki (Eds.), Perspectives on Nuclear Medicine for Molecular Diagnosis and Integrated Therapy (pp. 67–75). Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leisure/Loisir.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, June 3). Study Demonstrates That Earth Organisms Could Survive On Mars. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Health Care: Home Care Experiences of Families With Chronically Ill Children (HRD-89-73). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lummus, S. (2010). Perceptions of required leadership behaviors for nurse leaders as measured by the Leadership Practices Inventory [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Castle, S., & Kanter, J. (2016, October 7). Dispute Between Lawmakers Turns Ugly. New York Times, A3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lyon, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Lyon, 2012; Wang & Huang, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang & Huang, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Xu et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Fotiadis et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleLeisure/Loisir
AbbreviationLeisure (Waterloo)
ISSN (print)1492-7713
ISSN (online)2151-2221
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Geography, Planning and Development

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