How to format your references using the Leisure/Loisir citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leisure/Loisir. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mace, G. M. (2014). Ecology. Whose conservation? Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6204), 1558–1560.
A journal article with 2 authors
Khajetoorians, A. A., & Wiebe, J. (2014). Physics. Hitting the limit of magnetic anisotropy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6187), 976–977.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, Q., Piston, D. W., & Goodman, R. H. (2002). Regulation of corepressor function by nuclear NADH. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5561), 1895–1897.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sinn, H., Glorieux, B., Hennet, L., Alatas, A., Hu, M., Alp, E. E., Bermejo, F. J., Price, D. L., & Saboungi, M.-L. (2003). Microscopic dynamics of liquid aluminum oxide. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5615), 2047–2049.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bar-Eli, M., Plessner, H., & Raab, M. (2011). Judgement, Decision Making and Success in Sport. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Cherry, S. R. (2006). PET: Physics, Instrumentation, and Scanners (M. Dahlbom & M. E. Phelps, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Oquendo, F., Leite, J., & Batista, T. (2016). Specifying the Structure of Software Architectures. In J. Leite & T. Batista (Eds.), Software Architecture in Action: Designing and Executing Architectural Models with SysADL Grounded on the OMG SysML Standard (pp. 37–64). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leisure/Loisir.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, May 21). Antarctic Rate of Ice Loss Double Previous Estimate. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Education Programs: Information on the Ed-Flex Demonstration Project (HEHS-98-61R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gu, P. (2017). Advanced Nonlinear Control and Estimation Methods for AC Power Generation Systems [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2017, October 2). CBS Wrongly Reports Singer’s Death. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mace, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Khajetoorians & Wiebe, 2014; Mace, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Khajetoorians & Wiebe, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Zhang et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sinn et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleLeisure/Loisir
AbbreviationLeisure (Waterloo)
ISSN (print)1492-7713
ISSN (online)2151-2221
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles