How to format your references using the Leisure/Loisir citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leisure/Loisir. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moller, D. E. (2001). New drug targets for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Nature, 414(6865), 821–827.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gibbs, M. J., & Gibbs, A. J. (2006). Molecular virology: was the 1918 pandemic caused by a bird flu? Nature, 440(7088), E8; discussion E9-10.
A journal article with 3 authors
Atsumi, S., Hanai, T., & Liao, J. C. (2008). Non-fermentative pathways for synthesis of branched-chain higher alcohols as biofuels. Nature, 451(7174), 86–89.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Andreotti, B., Fourrière, A., Ould-Kaddour, F., Murray, B., & Claudin, P. (2009). Giant aeolian dune size determined by the average depth of the atmospheric boundary layer. Nature, 457(7233), 1120–1123.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paris, J. L., & Paris, J. L. (2008). CliffsNotes® Praxis II®. Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Hofmann, E. (2014). Performance Measurement and Incentive Systems in Purchasing: More Than Just Savings (D. Maucher, M. Kotula, & O. Kreienbrink, Eds.; Vol. 3). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
George, M., Campagna, M.-C., Babber, P., & Faiz, S. A. (2016). Pulmonary and Airway Emergencies. In E. F. Manzullo, C. E. Gonzalez, C. P. Escalante, & S.-C. J. Yeung (Eds.), Oncologic Emergencies (pp. 93–111). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leisure/Loisir.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 30). FDA Approves Double Chin Shrinking Drug. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Why NASA’s Property Accounting and Control System Should Be Improved (FGMSD-75-27). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abraham, E. D. (2015). A mental health community outreach and education program for Nigerian immigrants: A grant writing project [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2017, April 10). Drake and Ed Sheeran Top the Chart, Again. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moller, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Gibbs & Gibbs, 2006; Moller, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gibbs & Gibbs, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Atsumi et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Andreotti et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleLeisure/Loisir
AbbreviationLeisure (Waterloo)
ISSN (print)1492-7713
ISSN (online)2151-2221
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles