How to format your references using the Digital Communications and Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digital Communications and Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.M. Wilkinson, At cross purposes, Nature. 412 (2001) 485.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.-A. Selosse, F. Rousset, Evolution. The plant-fungal marketplace, Science. 333 (2011) 828–829.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Roy, G. Hunt, D. Jablonski, Phylogenetic conservatism of extinctions in marine bivalves, Science. 325 (2009) 733–737.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Belluscio, C. Lodovichi, P. Feinstein, P. Mombaerts, L.C. Katz, Odorant receptors instruct functional circuitry in the mouse olfactory bulb, Nature. 419 (2002) 296–300.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W. Liu, M. Pecht, IC Component Sockets, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
K. Zheng, Heterogeneous Vehicular Networks, 1st ed. 2016, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Castellà-Roca, J. Domingo-Ferrer, F. Sebé, A Smart Card-Based Mental Poker System, in: J. Domingo-Ferrer, J. Posegga, D. Schreckling (Eds.), Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications: 7th IFIP WG 8.8/11.2 International Conference, CARDIS 2006, Tarragona, Spain, April 19-21, 2006. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006: pp. 48–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digital Communications and Networks.

Blog post
J. Davis, Woman In The US Dies After Infection From Bacteria Resistant To 26 Antibiotic Drugs, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, FAA Procurement: Competition for Major Data-Processing Project Was Unjustifiably Limited, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.G. Kunihiro, The relationship between dietary omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid intake and colorectal cancer, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by, Arts, Briefly; Rare Violin in the Spotlight, New York Times. (2005) E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigital Communications and Networks
AbbreviationDigit. Commun. Netw.
ISSN (print)2352-8648

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