How to format your references using the Digital Communications and Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digital Communications and Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Macilwain, Physicists celebrate detection of elusive “final” particle, Nature. 406 (2000) 334.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. Blake, J. Wall, A velocity dipole in the distribution of radio galaxies, Nature. 416 (2002) 150–152.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Freitas, G. Zhang, M.J. Cohn, Evidence that mechanisms of fin development evolved in the midline of early vertebrates, Nature. 442 (2006) 1033–1037.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H.J. Kim, S.A. Oh, L. Brownfield, S.H. Hong, H. Ryu, I. Hwang, D. Twell, H.G. Nam, Control of plant germline proliferation by SCF(FBL17) degradation of cell cycle inhibitors, Nature. 455 (2008) 1134–1137.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Calloway, Becoming a Category of One, Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2009.
An edited book
N. Imanishi, A.C. Luntz, P. Bruce, eds., The Lithium Air Battery: Fundamentals, Springer, New York, NY, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
C.G. Simpson, J.W.S. Brown, U12-Dependent Intron Splicing in Plants, in: A.S.N. Reddy, M. Golovkin (Eds.), Nuclear Pre-MRNA Processing in Plants, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 61–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digital Communications and Networks.

Blog post
E. Andrew, What’s The Mass Of A Supermassive Black Hole?, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, [Comments on DOT Authority To Requisition Vessels], U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N.L. Alai, Development of a Sport-Specific Curriculum Addressing Selfefficacy to Optimize Carbohydrate and Calorie Intake Among Male and Female High School Cross-Country Runners, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, A Warning on Bankruptcy in Puerto Rico’s Debt Crisis, New York Times. (2016) B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigital Communications and Networks
AbbreviationDigit. Commun. Netw.
ISSN (print)2352-8648

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