How to format your references using the Digital Communications and Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digital Communications and Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.M.W. Slack, Origin of stem cells in organogenesis, Science. 322 (2008) 1498–1501.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.S. Friedman, M.A. Walter, Biomedicine. Under pressure, Science. 295 (2002) 983–984.
A journal article with 3 authors
W.W. Ding, F. Murray, T.E. Stuart, Gender differences in patenting in the academic life sciences, Science. 313 (2006) 665–667.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Hess, A. Sczyrba, R. Egan, T.-W. Kim, H. Chokhawala, G. Schroth, S. Luo, D.S. Clark, F. Chen, T. Zhang, R.I. Mackie, L.A. Pennacchio, S.G. Tringe, A. Visel, T. Woyke, Z. Wang, E.M. Rubin, Metagenomic discovery of biomass-degrading genes and genomes from cow rumen, Science. 331 (2011) 463–467.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Smeets, L. van der Sluis, M. Kapetanović, D.F. Peelo, A. Janssen, Switching in Electrical Transmission and Distribution Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
E. Eskin, C. Workman, eds., Regulatory Genomics: RECOMB 2004 International Workshop, RRG 2004, San Diego, Ca, USA, March 26-27, 2004, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
J.G. Granström, Assumption and Substitution, in: J.G. Granström (Ed.), Treatise on Intuitionistic Type Theory, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011: pp. 107–154.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digital Communications and Networks.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, “Quantum Entangled” Laser Pointers Could Double Data Speed, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Communications Commission: Strategic Focus Needed to Improve Information Resources Management, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.-U. Werbeck, From rubble to revolutions and raves: Literary interrogations of German media ecologies, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Billard, Scouting Report, New York Times. (2010) E9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigital Communications and Networks
AbbreviationDigit. Commun. Netw.
ISSN (print)2352-8648

Other styles