How to format your references using the Digital Communications and Networks citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digital Communications and Networks. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Stone, EASTERN EUROPE: Serbian University Law Causes Turmoil, Science. 290 (2000) 691.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.S. Smith, J.D. Boeke, Transcription. Is S phase important for transcriptional silencing?, Science. 291 (2001) 608–609.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Ghimire, E. Shafran, J.M. Gerton, Using a sharp metal tip to control the polarization and direction of emission from a quantum dot, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6456.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N. Uehlein, C. Lovisolo, F. Siefritz, R. Kaldenhoff, The tobacco aquaporin NtAQP1 is a membrane CO2 pore with physiological functions, Nature. 425 (2003) 734–737.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A.M. Ansons, H. Davis, Diagnosis and Management of Ocular Motility Disorders, Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2008.
An edited book
S.N. Srihari, K. Franke, eds., Computational Forensics: Second International Workshop, IWCF 2008, Washington, DC, USA, August 7-8, 2008. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
O. Arandjelović, A. Zisserman, On Film Character Retrieval in Feature-Length Films, in: R.I. Hammoud (Ed.), Interactive Video: Algorithms and Technologies, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006: pp. 89–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digital Communications and Networks.

Blog post
E. Andrew, What’s MSG, And Is It Bad For You?, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Utilization of Consultants, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1970.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.R. Arendt, Symbiosis establishment and ecological effects of endohyphal bacteria on foliar fungi, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, Organizer Says It Will Reinstate Appearance Fees for Top Racers, New York Times. (2014) B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigital Communications and Networks
AbbreviationDigit. Commun. Netw.
ISSN (print)2352-8648

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