How to format your references using the Digestive and Liver Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digestive and Liver Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McDowell JM. Plant science. Beleaguered immunity. Science 2011;334:1354–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Monsonego A, Weiner HL. Immunotherapeutic approaches to Alzheimer’s disease. Science 2003;302:834–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dulac C, O’Connell LA, Wu Z. Neural control of maternal and paternal behaviors. Science 2014;345:765–70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Beermann J, Eriksen RL, Holmgaard T, Pedersen K, Bozhevolnyi SI. Plasmonic black metals via radiation absorption by two-dimensional arrays of ultra-sharp convex grooves. Sci Rep 2014;4:6904.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fink JK. Metallized and Magnetic Polymers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Aula P. The Reputable Firm: How Digitalization of Communication Is Revolutionizing Reputation Management. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Biscari P, Ruggeri T, Saccomandi G, Vianello MS. Geometria delle masse. In: Ruggeri T, Saccomandi G, Vianello MS, editors. Meccanica Razionale, Milano: Springer; 2016, p. 87–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digestive and Liver Disease.

Blog post
Andrew E. Bacteria On Shoes Could Help Forensic Teams Catch Suspects. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Interstate Commerce Commission: Impacts of Eliminating or Transferring Motor Carrier and Other Functions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mc Adams AN. School psychologists’ perceptions of procedural fidelity in special education. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Belarus: European Official Expelled. New York Times 2002:A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigestive and Liver Disease
AbbreviationDig. Liver Dis.
ISSN (print)1590-8658

Other styles