How to format your references using the Digestive and Liver Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digestive and Liver Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pan J. From industrial toward ecological in China. Science 2012;336:1397.
A journal article with 2 authors
Guillot C, Lecuit T. Mechanics of epithelial tissue homeostasis and morphogenesis. Science 2013;340:1185–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Verbeeck J, Tian H, Schattschneider P. Production and application of electron vortex beams. Nature 2010;467:301–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Luo H-W, Chen J-J, Sheng G-P, Su J-H, Wei S-Q, Yu H-Q. Experimental and theoretical approaches for the surface interaction between copper and activated sludge microorganisms at molecular scale. Sci Rep 2014;4:7078.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blevins RD. Formulas for Dynamics, Acoustics and Vibration. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
van Bueren E, van Bohemen H, Itard L, Visscher H, editors. Sustainable Urban Environments: An Ecosystem Approach. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Ghosh A, Pal M, Bhadra P, Sarcar P. Design of Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Different Dielectric Constants. In: Maharatna K, Dalapati GK, Banerjee PK, Mallick AK, Mukherjee M, editors. Computational Advancement in Communication Circuits and Systems: Proceedings of ICCACCS 2014, New Delhi: Springer India; 2015, p. 39–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digestive and Liver Disease.

Blog post
Andrew E. Preserving the X-ray Universe for future generations. IFLScience 2013. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Progress Being Made, but Long-term Attention Is Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dues PM. Quantitative correlation of enterprise resource planning type, success, and technology leadership style in local government. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wasik JF. Death Is Inevitable. Financial Turmoil Afterward Isn’t. New York Times 2017:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigestive and Liver Disease
AbbreviationDig. Liver Dis.
ISSN (print)1590-8658

Other styles