How to format your references using the Digestive and Liver Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digestive and Liver Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Korgel BA. Materials science. Self-assembled nanocoils. Science 2004;303:1308–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Bork P, Copley R. Genome speak. Nature 2001;409:815.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Warrick DR, Tobalske BW, Powers DR. Aerodynamics of the hovering hummingbird. Nature 2005;435:1094–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Kamlapure A, Das T, Ganguli SC, Parmar JB, Bhattacharyya S, Raychaudhuri P. Emergence of nanoscale inhomogeneity in the superconducting state of a homogeneously disordered conventional superconductor. Sci Rep 2013;3:2979.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Nappi E, Peskov V. Imaging Gaseous Detectors and Their Applications. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
[1]
Craig RG, Kamer AR, editors. A Clinician’s Guide to Systemic Effects of Periodontal Diseases. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Meena A, El Mansori M. Integrated Casting-Heat Treatment Process Route for Near Net Shape ADI Casting Production. In: Tiryakioğlu M, Campbell J, Byczynski G, editors. Shape Casting: 5th International Symposium 2014, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 35–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digestive and Liver Disease.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. If Everyone Lived in An ‘Ecovillage’, the Earth Would Still be in Trouble. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/if-everyone-lived-ecovillage-earth-would-still-be-trouble/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Tax Administration: Achieving Business and Technical Goals In Tax Systems Modernization. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Young DL. A phenomenological investigation of science center exhibition developers’ expertise development. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Williams J. Top of the Class. New York Times 2016:BR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigestive and Liver Disease
AbbreviationDig. Liver Dis.
ISSN (print)1590-8658
ScopeGastroenterology
Hepatology

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