How to format your references using the Digestive and Liver Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digestive and Liver Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Korgel BA. Materials science. Nanosprings take shape. Science 2005;309:1683–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Stern A, Lindner NH. Topological quantum computation--from basic concepts to first experiments. Science 2013;339:1179–84.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Pack A, Shelley JMG, Palme H. Chondrules with peculiar REE patterns: implications for solar nebular condensation at high C/O. Science 2004;303:997–1000.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Rozen S, Skaletsky H, Marszalek JD, Minx PJ, Cordum HS, Waterston RH, et al. Abundant gene conversion between arms of palindromes in human and ape Y chromosomes. Nature 2003;423:873–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Edgerton M. A Practitioner’s Guide to Effective Maritime and Port Security. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
[1]
Quinn PJ, Wang X, editors. Lipids in Health and Disease. vol. 49. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Takahashi EJ, Lan P, Okino T, Furukawa Y, Nabekawa Y, Yamanouchi K, et al. Intense Attosecond Pulses for Probing Ultrafast Molecular Dynamics. In: Yamanouchi K, Cundiff S, Vivie-Riedle R de, Kuwata-Gonokami M, DiMauro L, editors. Ultrafast Phenomena XIX: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference, Okinawa Convention Center, Okinawa, Japan, July 7-11, 2014, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 16–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digestive and Liver Disease.

Blog post
[1]
O`Callaghan J. How To See This Week’s Rare Alignment Of Venus, Mars, And Jupiter. IFLScience 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. [Better Guidance Would Improve ADP Evaluations in Support of the Federal Managers’ Financial Integrity Act of 1982]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Carroll WE. Leadership and emotional intelligence: Ability-based and mixed models of emotional intelligence as predictors of leadership performance across manager levels. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Yablonsky L. Hotel Rooms Become Overnight Stars. New York Times 2007:AR22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigestive and Liver Disease
AbbreviationDig. Liver Dis.
ISSN (print)1590-8658
ScopeGastroenterology
Hepatology

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