How to format your references using the Digestive and Liver Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digestive and Liver Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Dobson CM. Chemical space and biology. Nature 2004;432:824–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Huang AS, Tan CYH. Science and society. Achieving scientific eminence within Asia. Science 2010;329:1471–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Koh K, Zheng X, Sehgal A. JETLAG resets the Drosophila circadian clock by promoting light-induced degradation of TIMELESS. Science 2006;312:1809–12.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Fixler JB, Foster GT, McGuirk JM, Kasevich MA. Atom interferometer measurement of the newtonian constant of gravity. Science 2007;315:74–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Mishra AR. Cellular Technologies for Emerging Markets. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
[1]
Chung KC, editor. Clinical Management of the Rheumatoid Hand, Wrist, and Elbow. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Satoh M, Chan JYF, Ceribelli A, del-Mercado MV, Chan EKL. Autoantibodies to Argonaute 2 (Su Antigen). In: Chan EKL, Fritzler MJ, editors. Ten Years of Progress in GW/P Body Research, New York, NY: Springer; 2013, p. 45–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digestive and Liver Disease.

Blog post
[1]
Davis J. New Laser Treatment Based On Deep-Sea Bacteria Effectively Treats Prostate Cancer. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/new-laser-treatment-based-on-deepsea-bacteria-effectively-treats-prostate-cancer/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Security: TSA Has Made Progress in Implementing the Transportation Worker Identification Credential Program, but Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Stevenson CL. Availability and seasonal use of diurnal roosts by Rafinesque’s big-eared bat and southeastern myotis in bottomland hardwoods of Mississippi. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Wines M. In Search of the Right Type of Juror, When a Police Officer Is on Trial. New York Times 2017:A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDigestive and Liver Disease
AbbreviationDig. Liver Dis.
ISSN (print)1590-8658
ScopeGastroenterology
Hepatology

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