How to format your references using the Groundwater for Sustainable Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Groundwater for Sustainable Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Romani, R.W., 2014. Astronomy. Pulsar beams--big and bright. Science 344, 159–160.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yasunaga, M., Matsumura, Y., 2014. Role of SLC6A6 in promoting the survival and multidrug resistance of colorectal cancer. Sci. Rep. 4, 4852.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, C., Bobisch, C.A., Ho, W., 2009. Visualization of Fermi’s golden rule through imaging of light emission from atomic silver chains. Science 325, 981–985.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Norell, M., Ji, Q., Gao, K., Yuan, C., Zhao, Y., Wang, L., 2002. Palaeontology: “modern” feathers on a non-avian dinosaur. Nature 416, 36–37.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, 2010. A Practical Approach to Hazard Identification for Operations and Maintenance Workers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Pedrozo Pupo, J.C. (Ed.), 2013. Learning Chest Imaging, Learning Imaging. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Guo, Z., Lamb, S., 2010. A Review of Current Practice in China, in: Lamb, S. (Ed.), International Comparisons of China’s Technical and Vocational Education and Training System, Technical and Vocational Education and Training: Issues, Concerns and Prospects. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 55–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Groundwater for Sustainable Development.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Why Frequent Dieting Makes You Put On Weight – And What To Do About It [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1982. Recommendation Regarding Backpay Claim by Teacher of Overseas Dependents Schools (No. B-156439(JAB)). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Witvorapong, N., 2011. The Dynamics of Living Arrangements Among the Elderly (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rich, N., 2014. The New Origin of the Species. New York Times MM24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Romani, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Romani, 2014; Yasunaga and Matsumura, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yasunaga and Matsumura, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Norell et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGroundwater for Sustainable Development
AbbreviationGroundw. Sustain. Dev.
ISSN (print)2352-801X
ScopeEnvironmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering
Water Science and Technology
Geography, Planning and Development

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