How to format your references using the Groundwater for Sustainable Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Groundwater for Sustainable Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
White, J.W.C., 2004. Paleoclimate. Do I hear a million? Science 304, 1609–1610.
A journal article with 2 authors
Milad, M.R., Quirk, G.J., 2002. Neurons in medial prefrontal cortex signal memory for fear extinction. Nature 420, 70–74.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nielsen, S., Yuzenkova, Y., Zenkin, N., 2013. Mechanism of eukaryotic RNA polymerase III transcription termination. Science 340, 1577–1580.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Novoselov, K.S., Geim, A.K., Morozov, S.V., Jiang, D., Zhang, Y., Dubonos, S.V., Grigorieva, I.V., Firsov, A.A., 2004. Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science 306, 666–669.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Freeman, R.L., 2005. Telecommunication System Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Calude, C.S., Dinneen, M.J., Păun, G., Pérez-Jímenez, M.J., Rozenberg, G. (Eds.), 2005. Unconventional Computation: 4th International Conference, UC 2005, Sevilla, Spain, October 3 – 7, 2005. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Wilk, S., Michalowski, M., Tan, X., Michalowski, W., 2014. Using First-Order Logic to Represent Clinical Practice Guidelines and to Mitigate Adverse Interactions, in: Miksch, S., Riaño, D., ten Teije, A. (Eds.), Knowledge Representation for Health Care: 6th International Workshop, KR4HC 2014, Held as Part of the Vienna Summer of Logic, VSL 2014, Vienna, Austria, July 21, 2014. Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 45–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Groundwater for Sustainable Development.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2017. Diagonal Ear Crease Linked To Increased Risk Of Coronary Heart Disease [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. Independent Auditor’s Report on Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Fiscal Year 2016 Excise Tax Distributions to the Airport and Airway Trust Fund and the Highway Trust Fund (No. GAO-17-157R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ward, D., 2014. Teaching with the End in Mind: A Teacher’s Life History as a Legacy of Educational Leaders (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., 2016. Pauley Is Back — Again. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (White, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Milad and Quirk, 2002; White, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Milad and Quirk, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Novoselov et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleGroundwater for Sustainable Development
AbbreviationGroundw. Sustain. Dev.
ISSN (print)2352-801X
ScopeEnvironmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering
Water Science and Technology
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles