How to format your references using the Groundwater for Sustainable Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Groundwater for Sustainable Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leggett, A.J., 2005. The quantum measurement problem. Science 307, 871–872.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mossel, E., Vigoda, E., 2005. Phylogenetic MCMC algorithms are misleading on mixtures of trees. Science 309, 2207–2209.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dragert, G., Wang, K., James, T.S., 2001. A silent slip event on the deeper Cascadia subduction interface. Science 292, 1525–1528.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Seki, A., Coppinger, J.A., Jang, C.-Y., Yates, J.R., Fang, G., 2008. Bora and the kinase Aurora a cooperatively activate the kinase Plk1 and control mitotic entry. Science 320, 1655–1658.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, 2011. Recognizing Catastrophic Incident Warning Signs in the Process Industries. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Schnug, E., De Kok, L.J. (Eds.), 2016. Phosphorus in Agriculture: 100 % Zero. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Fritzsche, B., Kirstein, B., Mädler, C., 2012. On a Special Parametrization of Matricial α-Stieltjes One-sided Non-negative Definite Sequences, in: Alpay, D., Kirstein, B. (Eds.), Interpolation, Schur Functions and Moment Problems II. Springer, Basel, pp. 211–250.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Groundwater for Sustainable Development.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016. Uranus May Have Two More Undiscovered Moons [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Internet Protocol Version 6: Federal Agencies Need to Plan for Transition and Manage Security Risks (No. GAO-05-845T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richardson, M.M., 2013. Challenging the South’s black-white binary: Haliwa-Saponi Indians and political autonomy (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Corkery, M., de la MERCED, M.J., 2017. Nordstrom Family to Consider Ways of Taking Chain Private. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Leggett, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Leggett, 2005; Mossel and Vigoda, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mossel and Vigoda, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Seki et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGroundwater for Sustainable Development
AbbreviationGroundw. Sustain. Dev.
ISSN (print)2352-801X
ScopeEnvironmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering
Water Science and Technology
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles