How to format your references using the Groundwater for Sustainable Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Groundwater for Sustainable Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sassone-Corsi, P., 2013. Physiology. When metabolism and epigenetics converge. Science 339, 148–150.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tian, C., Zheng, J.C., 2011. Reprogrammed Astrocytes as a Potential Therapy for Neurodegenerative Disorders. Science 334, 53–54.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mastrobuono-Battisti, A., Perets, H.B., Raymond, S.N., 2015. A primordial origin for the compositional similarity between the Earth and the Moon. Nature 520, 212–215.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Allen, A.E., Dupont, C.L., Oborník, M., Horák, A., Nunes-Nesi, A., McCrow, J.P., Zheng, H., Johnson, D.A., Hu, H., Fernie, A.R., Bowler, C., 2011. Evolution and metabolic significance of the urea cycle in photosynthetic diatoms. Nature 473, 203–207.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pavlović, T., Alvarez, I., Blanco-Cano, R., Grisales, A., Osorio, A., Sánchez, A., 2008. 100 Years of Spanish Cinema. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Mikulski, J. (Ed.), 2014. Telematics - Support for Transport: 14th International Conference on Transport Systems Telematics, TST 2014, Katowice/Kraków/Ustroń, Poland, October 22-25, 2014. Selected Papers, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Fletcher, J.G., Bharucha, A.E., Siddiki, H., 2008. Dynamic MR Imaging of the Pelvic Floor, in: Taylor, S.A., DeLancey, J.O.L. (Eds.), Imaging Pelvic Floor Disorders, Medical Radiology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 75–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Groundwater for Sustainable Development.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2017. Does Drinking Wine Seriously Engage Your Brain More Than A Math Problem? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1984. GAO Request for Additional SES Positions (No. 126106). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stewart, A.M., 2014. Estimation of urban-enhanced infiltration and groundwater recharge, Sierra Vista subbasin, southeast Arizona USA (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Anderson, J., 2017. A Palestinian Hip-Hop Film. From Israel. New York Times AR14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sassone-Corsi, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Sassone-Corsi, 2013; Tian and Zheng, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tian and Zheng, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Allen et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleGroundwater for Sustainable Development
AbbreviationGroundw. Sustain. Dev.
ISSN (print)2352-801X
ScopeEnvironmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering
Water Science and Technology
Geography, Planning and Development

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