How to format your references using the Groundwater for Sustainable Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Groundwater for Sustainable Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kramer, M., 2009. Astronomy. Extreme spinning tops. Science 324, 1396–1397.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steinman, R.M., Banchereau, J., 2007. Taking dendritic cells into medicine. Nature 449, 419–426.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lutzoni, F., Pagel, M., Reeb, V., 2001. Major fungal lineages are derived from lichen symbiotic ancestors. Nature 411, 937–940.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mulugu, S., Bai, W., Fridy, P.C., Bastidas, R.J., Otto, J.C., Dollins, D.E., Haystead, T.A., Ribeiro, A.A., York, J.D., 2007. A conserved family of enzymes that phosphorylate inositol hexakisphosphate. Science 316, 106–109.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weinberg, M.A., Froum, S.J., 2012. The Dentist’s Drug and Prescription Guide. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
Ye, L., Feng, P., Yue, Q. (Eds.), 2011. Advances in FRP Composites in Civil Engineering: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering (CICE 2010), Sep 27–29, 2010, Beijing, China. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Lasaygues, P., Lefebvre, J.-P., Guillermin, R., Kaftandjian, V., Berteau, J.-P., Pithioux, M., Petit, P., 2012. Advanced Ultrasonic Tomograph of Children’s Bones, in: Nowicki, A., Litniewski, J., Kujawska, T. (Eds.), Acoustical Imaging: Volume 31, Acoustical Imaging. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 31–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Groundwater for Sustainable Development.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Secrets Of A “Nude Plant” Could Help Grow Food On Mars [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1973. Protest Against NASA Contract for Janitorial Services (No. B-178747). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sutton, L.M., 2012. Factors Affecting Quality Discourse and Knowledge Construction in an Online University Course (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., 2012. Review of Texas Association Sought. New York Times B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kramer, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Kramer, 2009; Steinman and Banchereau, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Steinman and Banchereau, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Mulugu et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleGroundwater for Sustainable Development
AbbreviationGroundw. Sustain. Dev.
ISSN (print)2352-801X
ScopeEnvironmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering
Water Science and Technology
Geography, Planning and Development

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