How to format your references using the Groundwater for Sustainable Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Groundwater for Sustainable Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laming, J.M., 2014. Astrophysics: Lopsided stellar death. Nature 506, 298–299.
A journal article with 2 authors
Charbonnel, C., Talon, S., 2005. Influence of gravity waves on the internal rotation and Li abundance of solar-type stars. Science 309, 2189–2191.
A journal article with 3 authors
Griesinger, C.B., Richards, C.D., Ashmore, J.F., 2005. Fast vesicle replenishment allows indefatigable signalling at the first auditory synapse. Nature 435, 212–215.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lindenmayer, D.B., Foster, D.R., Franklin, J.F., Hunter, M.L., Noss, R.F., Schmiegelow, F.A., Perry, D., 2004. Ecology. Salvage harvesting policies after natural disturbance. Science 303, 1303.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoffman, R.V., 2004. Organic Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Karshenboim, S.G. (Ed.), 2008. Precision Physics of Simple Atoms and Molecules, Lecture Notes in Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Haimes, R., 2014. MOSS: Multiple Orthogonal Strand System, in: Sarrate, J., Staten, M. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 22nd International Meshing Roundtable. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 75–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Groundwater for Sustainable Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Human Trial Investigating Cannabis As A Brain Cancer Treatment Set To Begin This Year [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. Staffing, Training, and Funding Issues for FAA’s Major Work Forces (No. T-RCED-90-42). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hernandez, R., 2013. Growth and development of greenhouse vegetable seedlings under supplemental LED lighting (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C., 2008. Finishing Tarrytown Hall, in Nick of Time. New York Times WE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Laming, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Laming, 2014, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Charbonnel and Talon, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Lindenmayer et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleGroundwater for Sustainable Development
AbbreviationGroundw. Sustain. Dev.
ISSN (print)2352-801X
ScopeEnvironmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering
Water Science and Technology
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles