How to format your references using the Differential Geometry and its Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Differential Geometry and its Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.G. Dulloo, Biomedicine. A sympathetic defense against obesity, Science. 297 (2002) 780–781.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.B. Laughlin, T.J. Sejnowski, Communication in neuronal networks, Science. 301 (2003) 1870–1874.
A journal article with 3 authors
W.R. Peltier, Y. Liu, J.W. Crowley, Snowball Earth prevention by dissolved organic carbon remineralization, Nature. 450 (2007) 813–818.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B. Ding, L. Soblosky, K. Nguyen, J. Geng, X. Yu, A. Ramamoorthy, Z. Chen, Physiologically-relevant modes of membrane interactions by the human antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, revealed by SFG experiments, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1854.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Kindmann, M. Kraus, Steel Structures, Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany, 2012.
An edited book
E.D. Nitto, R. Yahyapour, eds., Towards a Service-Based Internet: Third European Conference, ServiceWave 2010, Ghent, Belgium, December 13-15, 2010. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
W.H. Holmes, W.C. Rinaman, Introduction to Statistical Inference, in: W.C. Rinaman (Ed.), Statistical Literacy for Clinical Practitioners, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 127–147.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Differential Geometry and its Applications.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Returning To The Moon Is Ten Times Cheaper Than Thought, And It Could Lead To Mars, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Central Artery/Tunnel Project: Cost and Financing, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Tuschall, Exploration of the Relationship Between Implicit Theory of Intelligence and Employability, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G.G. Gustines, Revisiting an Effort to Expose the Evils of ‘Mein Kampf,’ New York Times. (2016) C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDifferential Geometry and its Applications
AbbreviationDiffer. Geom. Appl.
ISSN (print)0926-2245
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Geometry and Topology

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