How to format your references using the Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bell, J.I.: The double helix in clinical practice. Nature. 421, 414–416 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Anglada-Escudé, G., Tuomi, M.: Exoplanet detection. Comment on “Stellar activity masquerading as planets in the habitable zone of the M dwarf Gliese 581.” Science. 347, 1080 (2015)
A journal article with 3 authors
Chakravarty, S., Kee, H.-Y., Völker, K.: An explanation for a universality of transition temperatures in families of copper oxide superconductors. Nature. 428, 53–55 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gu, Z., Wei, W., Su, J., Yu, C.W.: The role of water content in triboelectric charging of wind-blown sand. Sci. Rep. 3, 1337 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pérez, A.: Mobile Networks Architecture. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA (2013)
An edited book
Chatterjee, S.: Analog Circuit Design Techniques at 0.5 V. Springer US, Boston, MA (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Rani, A., Goel, R.: Strategies for Crop Improvement in Contaminated Soils Using Metal-Tolerant Bioinoculants. In: Khan, M.S., Zaidi, A., and Musarrat, J. (eds.) Microbial Strategies for Crop Improvement. pp. 85–104. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: 29 Of The Most Surreal Landscapes On The Planet,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Student Mentoring Programs: Education’s Monitoring and Information Sharing Could Be Improved. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2004)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hwang, Y.J.: Three Essays on Economics and Risk Perception, (2006)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S.: Artifacts From a Battle That Never Was, (2015)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDifferential Equations and Dynamical Systems
AbbreviationDiffer. Equ. Dyn. Syst.
ISSN (print)0971-3514
ISSN (online)0974-6870
Applied Mathematics

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