How to format your references using the Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gursky, H.: X-ray astronomy-40 years on. Science. 297, 1485–1486 (2002)
A journal article with 2 authors
Rignot, E., Thomas, R.H.: Mass balance of polar ice sheets. Science. 297, 1502–1506 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Bruins, H.J., van der Plicht, J., Mazar, A.: 14C dates from Tel Rehov: Iron-Age chronology, pharaohs, and Hebrew kings. Science. 300, 315–318 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hodell, D.A., Brenner, M., Curtis, J.H., Guilderson, T.: Solar forcing of drought frequency in the Maya lowlands. Science. 292, 1367–1370 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuo, S.M., Lee, B.H., Tian, W.: Real-Time Digital Signal Processing. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2006)
An edited book
Dulea, M., Karaivanova, A., Oulas, A., Liabotis, I., Stojiljkovic, D., Prnjat, O. eds: High-Performance Computing Infrastructure for South East Europe’s Research Communities: Results of the HP-SEE User Forum 2012. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Choi, Y.-K., Kim, C.-H., Ahn, J.-H., Kim, J.-Y., Kim, S.: Dielectric Detection Using Biochemical Assays. In: Issadore, D. and Westervelt, R.M. (eds.) Point-of-Care Diagnostics on a Chip. pp. 97–123. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems.

Blog post
Taub, B.: Watch A Man Freefall 25,000 Feet With No Parachute,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Technology Transfer: DOE Has Fewer Partnerships, and They Rely More on Private Funding. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2001)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sammons, J.L.: Perceived benefits of and barriers to physical exercise in people with severe mental illness, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M.: Met Opera Numbers Inch Up, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDifferential Equations and Dynamical Systems
AbbreviationDiffer. Equ. Dyn. Syst.
ISSN (print)0971-3514
ISSN (online)0974-6870
Applied Mathematics

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