How to format your references using the Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zachary, D.S.: On the sustainability of an activity. Sci. Rep. 4, 5215 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Clark, C.M., Tilman, D.: Loss of plant species after chronic low-level nitrogen deposition to prairie grasslands. Nature. 451, 712–715 (2008)
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun, X., Mariani, F.V., Martin, G.R.: Functions of FGF signalling from the apical ectodermal ridge in limb development. Nature. 418, 501–508 (2002)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kainosho, M., Torizawa, T., Iwashita, Y., Terauchi, T., Mei Ono, A., Güntert, P.: Optimal isotope labelling for NMR protein structure determinations. Nature. 440, 52–57 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krasner, D.: A History of Modern Drama. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2011)
An edited book
Bungenberg, M., Herrmann, C. eds: Common Commercial Policy after Lisbon: Special Issue. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Schmieschek, S., Narváez, A., Harting, J.: Multi Relaxation Time Lattice Boltzmann Simulations of Multiple Component Fluid Flows in Porous Media. In: Nagel, W.E., Kröner, D.H., and Resch, M.M. (eds.) High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering ‘12: Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center, Stuttgart (HLRS) 2012. pp. 39–49. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Watch This Awesome Slow-Motion Explosion Of A Prince Rupert’s Drop,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Sports Arena. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1995)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams, E.C.: Smart Packaging: A Novel Technique For Localized Drug Delivery For Ovarian Cancer, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., Maheshwari, S.: Eyes Drift. Marketers Stick to TV, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDifferential Equations and Dynamical Systems
AbbreviationDiffer. Equ. Dyn. Syst.
ISSN (print)0971-3514
ISSN (online)0974-6870
Applied Mathematics

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